Descendants of Gor Thorrasson

Generation 1

1.

GOR1 THORRASSON was born about 600 AD.

 

Notes for Gor Thorrasson:

 

Gor Thorrasson is my 38th great grandfather, and the eldest ancestor in my mother's Abney family line. He lived probably in the early 600's AD, though documentation eludes me. So, this is based on best guess from dated information a couple of generations later.

 

According to legend, Gor's sister, Goi, disappeared. So Gor and his brother, Nor, went searching for her. Gor searched the islands of the Baltic. Although he went all the way to Denmark and met some of his relatives, he found no trace of Goi. Nor went west over theScandinavian mountains where he fought the local inhabitants of Trondheim. Nor eventually settled in Sokni's Valley by the North Sea.There Gor met up with him after conquering all the southern areas of the land. Gor and Nor divided the lands among themselves. Gor got all the islands he had conquered, and became the first "sea king." Nor got the continental areas. Nor traveled east toward Uppland (Sweden) to Heidmark where he met King Hrolf, and found that Hrolf had stolen Goi. Hrolf and Nor had a long and furious duel, but neither were wounded. After this marvelous fight, they made an agreement that Hrolf would marry Goi, and Nor would marry Hrolf's sister. Nor returned to his land, which has ever since been called Norge or "Nor's way."

 

Source:http://www.geocities.com/missourimule_2000/kingsoffinland.html#Family:%20Gor%20%22Sea%20King%22%20Thorrasson

Gor Thorrasson had the following child:

2.

i.

HEITI GORSSON (son of Gor Thorrasson) was born in Raumsdal, Telemark, Norway.

Generation 2

2.

HEITI GORSSON (Gor1 Thorrasson,Gor1) was born in Raumsdal, Telemark, Norway.

 

Notes for Heiti Gorsson:

 

Heiti Grosson was known as the "Sea King." Born, in Raumsdal,Telemark, Norway, we only have record of one child, Svidri Heytsson,born likewise in Raumsdal and also called the "Sea King."

 

Sourece: http://www.geocities.com/missourimule_2000/kingsoffinland.html

Heiti Gorsson had the following child:

3.

i.

SVIDRI HEYTSSON (son of Heiti Gorsson) was born in Raumsdal, Telemark, Norway.

Generation 3

3.

SVIDRI HEYTSSON (Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson) was born in Raumsdal, Telemark, Norway.

 

Notes for Svidri Heytsson:

 

Sveidi Heytsson, born in Raumsdal, Telemark, Norway, known as the "SeaKing," gave issue to one child of whom we kmow: Svedi Svidrasson.

 

Sourece: http://www.geocities.com/missourimule_2000/kingsoffinland.html

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Descendants of Gor Thorrasson

Generation 3

Svidri Heytsson had the following child:

4.

i.

SVEIDI SVIDRASSON (son of Svidri Heytsson) was born in Raumsdal, Telemark, Norway.

Generation 4

4.

SVEIDI SVIDRASSON (Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson) was born in Raumsdal, Telemark, Norway.

 

Notes for Sveidi Svidrasson:

 

The Orkneyinga Saga says that the father of Sveidi was Heiti Gorsson,skipping Svidri in the lineage.

 

Source:http://www.geocities.com/missourimule_2000/kingsoffinland.html#Family:%20Sveidi%20%22Sea%20King%22%20Svidrasson

Sveidi Svidrasson had the following child:

5.

i.

HALFDAN VANHA SVEIDASSON (son of Sveidi Svidrasson) was born about 750 AD in Norway.

Generation 5

5.

HALFDAN VANHA SVEIDASSON (Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson) was born about 750 AD in Norway.

 

Notes for Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson:

 

Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson "the Old" was Jarl (Earl) of the Uplands inNorway. This was sometime in the late 700's, and his culture was thatof the Viking life. Little is known now of the breath of his travels,but his significance is obvious to have had his name captured inwritten history. This is a pre-Christian era for that part of theworld, and It may safely be assumed that these Vikings were prettymuch barbaric and pagan.

 

Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson is my 34th great grandfather. Likewise, heis the 39th great grandfather of my son-in-law, Steven OdisWestmoreland, which makes my daughter, Tiffany Lenn Sharpe, athirty-fourth cousin, four times removed to her husband! So, fromearly beginnings, our two families were meant to intermingle,obviously.

 

This family line ties into the Westmoreland family line at the pointof French born English King Henry II (1133-1189). Halfdan VanhaSveidasson is the 10th great grandfather of Henry. However, theearliest man in the Westmoreland line is Henry's 35th greatgrandfather, Godwulf, a Germanic-Scandanian man. Godwulf was bornabout 80 AD. He heads the longest genealogical line recorded in myrecords, covering 67 generations. That shows that a generationaverages about 29 years in that family. In Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson'scase, he represents 36 generations that average about 35 years pergeneration. A generation is the time between a person's birth and thefirst child given issue by that person.

 

King Henry II came from the Plantagenet (pronounced plan TAJ uh niht),which was the family name of a line of kings that ruled England from1154 to 1399. These kings descended from the marriage of Matilda,daughter of King Henry I, to Geoffrey, count of Anjou, France.Geoffrey was nicknamed Plantagenet because he wore a sprig of thebroom (genet) plant in his cap. Numerous historians also call thesekings Angevins, meaning from Anjou. The Plantagenet dynasty beganwith Henry II, son of Matilda and Geoffrey. Henry is

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Descendants of Gor Thorrasson

Generation 5

my 9th cousin,24 times removed, as well as the 14th great grandfather of the firsthusband of Alice Carpenter, my seven times great grandmother.

 

Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson truly is a character of significance in theworld in which he was a citizen and in the lline of our family.

Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson had the following child:

6.

i.

IVAR HALFDANSSON (son of Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson) was born in Oppland, Norway. He married Eysteinsdatter in Oppland, Norway. She was born about 785 AD in Trondeim, Norway.

Generation 6

6.

IVAR HALFDANSSON (Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson) was born in Oppland, Norway. He married Eysteinsdatter in Oppland, Norway. She was born about 785 AD in Trondeim, Norway.

 

Notes for Ivar Halfdansson:

 

Ivar "the Great" was Jarl of the Uplands. He was living around 800,but we do not have birth and death dates on him. He is mythirty-third great grandfather.

Ivar Halfdansson and Eysteinsdatter had the following child:

7.

i.

EYSTEIN GLUMRA IVARSSON (son of Ivar Halfdansson and Eysteinsdatter) was born in 788 AD in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway. He died about 872 AD in Norway. He married ASEDA ROGNVALDSDATTER. She was born about 804 AD in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway.

Generation 7

7.

EYSTEIN GLUMRA IVARSSON (Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson) was born in 788 AD in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway. He died about 872 AD in Norway. He married ASEDA ROGNVALDSDATTER. She was born about 804 AD in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway.

 

Notes for Eystein Glumra Ivarsson:

 

Eystein Glumra Ivarsson was Earl or Jarl of the Uplands about the year810 AD. Eystein is the ancestor the Abney's have in common with theline of William the Conqueror. He is Williams's sixth greatgrandfather and my 32nd great grandfather. Eystein's title is Earl ofHendemarken. He was known as `the Noisy,' possibly an aka for Eyesteinof ORKNEY

 

Source:http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~jamesdow/s052/f280253.htm

 

Eystein Glumra Ivarsson is the 25th great grandfather of the firstPresident of the United States, General George Washington. He is the29th great grandfather of President Abraham Lincoln. Glumra Ivarssonis my 32nd great grandfather.

 

Eystein Glumra Ivarsson is the ancestor in common between my daughter,Tiffany Lenn Sharpe Westmoreland and her husband, Steven O.Westmoreland. They are related to each other as 34th cousins, fourtimes removed, as well as by husband and wife status.

Eystein Glumra Ivarsson and Aseda Rognvaldsdatter had the following children:

8.

i.

RAGNVALD I EYSTEINSSON (son of Eystein Glumra Ivarsson and Aseda

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Descendants of Gor Thorrasson

Generation 7

Rognvaldsdatter) was born about 830 AD in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway. He died in 890 AD in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland. He married (1) RAGNHILD HROLFSDOTTER (daughter of Hrolf Nefia) about 844 AD. She was born in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway. He married (2) GROA about 850 AD.

ii.

SIGURD I EKYSTEINSSON (son of Eystein Glumra Ivarsson and Aseda Rognvaldsdatter) was born about 832 AD in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway. He died in 874 AD in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland.

 

Notes for Sigurd I Ekysteinsson:

 

Sigurd was given Orkney and Shetland Islands by his brother, Rangwald.He became Earl over them. He plundered Scotland and subdued Eaithesand Sutherland in partnership with Thorestein "the Red" and killedMelbrige Tooth, a Scottish Earl, hung his head on his saddle bow, butthe teeth which were sticking out scratched his leg, creating a woundwhich became inflamed and caused his death.

9.

iii.

MALAHULC EYSTEINSSON (son of Eystein Glumra Ivarsson and Aseda Rognvaldsdatter) was born about 845 AD in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway.

iv.

SWANHILD EKYSTEINSDTTER (daughter of Eystein Glumra Ivarsson and Aseda Rognvaldsdatter) was born about 850 AD in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway. She married HARALD.

Generation 8

8.

RAGNVALD I EYSTEINSSON (Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson) was born about 830 AD in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway. He died in 890 AD in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland. He married (1) RAGNHILD HROLFSDOTTER (daughter of Hrolf Nefia) about 844 AD. She was born in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway. He married (2) GROA about 850 AD.

 

Notes for Ragnvald I Eysteinsson:

 

Ragnvald I Eysteinsson was also known as Ragnvald the Might orRagnvald the Wise. He was Jarl of the Uplands. He became one of KingHarald's men in 866. Rangwold gave the king the name of Harfager (FairHair). Ragnvald defeated Solve Kold of More and King Novke of Romsdalat the Battle of Solskel in 867. He was given those districts by KingHarald "Fair Hair." So, he is the earliest of the Kings of Finlandthat we list at this time.

 

He represents the descendants of Eystein Glumra Ivarsson who foundtheir way into Royalty, chiefly English Royalty, and later intoAmerican history leadership.

Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Ragnhild Hrolfsdotter had the following children:

i.

HALLAD (son of Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Ragnhild Hrolfsdotter).

 

Notes for Hallad:

 

Hallad was said to have been born by a concubine. He was made Earl ofOrkney after his brother's return. He was grown when Rollo was born.

ii.

EINAR (son of Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Ragnhild Hrolfsdotter).

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Descendants of Gor Thorrasson

Generation 8

Notes for Einar:

 

Ragnvald was said to have been born by a concubine. He was made Earlof Orkney after his brother's return, having been grown when Rollo wasborn.

iii.

HROLLAUG (son of Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Ragnhild Hrolfsdotter).

 

Notes for Hrollaug:

 

He was a Viking Chief, also born by a concubine.

iv.

THORER (son of Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Ragnhild Hrolfsdotter). He married ARLOF.

 

Notes for Thorer:

 

Jarl of More after his father's death. His wife was daughter of theKing.

v.

IVAR (son of Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Ragnhild Hrolfsdotter).

 

Notes for Ivar:

 

Ivar aided King Harald in his search for the Vikings. He was killedon a plundering expedition.

10.

vi.

GANGER ROLF (son of Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Ragnhild Hrolfsdotter). He died in 927 AD. He married POPPA.

 

 

Notes for Groa:

 

"Groa is often mentioned as a concubine. At this time, a concubine wasa wife of lesser importance, often the daughter of a slave or servant.In the Orkneyinga Saga Ragnvald is quoted as telling his son, Einar,'Considering the kind of mother you have; slave born on each side ofher family, you're not likely to make much of a ruler. But I agree;the sooner you leave and the later you return, the happier I'll be.'"

 

Source:http://www.geocities.com/missourimule_2000/kingsoffinland.html

Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Groa had the following children:

vii.

HALLAD ROGNVALDSON EYSTEINSSON (son of Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Groa) was born about 851 AD.

viii.

EINAR ROGNVALDSSON (son of Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Groa) was born about 852 AD in Raumsdal, Telemark, Norway. He died about 910 AD in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland.

 

Notes for Einar Rognvaldsson:

 

He sometimes was called "Turf" or "Torfeinar."

 

Source:http://www.geocities.com/missourimule_2000/kingsoffinland.html

ix.

HROLLAUG ROGNVALDSSON (son of Ragnvald I Eysteinsson and Groa) was born about 853 AD.

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Descendants of Gor Thorrasson

Generation 8

9.

MALAHULC EYSTEINSSON (Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson) was born about 845 AD in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway.

 

Notes for Malahulc Eysteinsson:

 

He went with his nephew, Rollo (or Rolf) to Normandy. He was thefounder of the family of Viscounts de St. Sauveur in the Cotentin(from whom the Abney's descend) and the families of Toeni or Conchesand Viscounts of Bayeux (both lines of which tie into the Abney's)

 

Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Malahulc's father, is the key ancestor who isin common between me and many, many of the famous Royalty and AmericanHistory leaders who are cited in these writings as relatives in ourfamily.

Malahulc Eysteinsson had the following children:

11.

i.

RICHARD DE ST. SAUVEUR (son of Malahulc Eysteinsson).

ii.

HUGH DE CAVALCAMP (son of Malahulc Eysteinsson) was born about 890 AD in Dieppe, Norway.

Generation 9

10.

GANGER ROLF (Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson). He died in 927 AD. He married POPPA.

 

Notes for Ganger Rolf:

 

He was known as Rollo. Also, he was known as "Rollo the Viking."Rollo was outlawed by King Harald, his Uncle. He was banished toHerbrides abound 876. He participated in a Viking attack on Bayeux,where Count Berenger of Bayeux was killed, and the County's daughter,Poppa, was captured and later taken to become Rollo's wife. Rolloobtained the title of the Count of Rouen.

 

He conquered Normandy and was given title of Duke of Normandy by theCharles III, "the Simple," King of France under the Treaty of St.Claire in 911.

Ganger Rolf and Poppa had the following children:

12.

i.

GERLOC (daughter of Ganger Rolf and Poppa). She died on 14 Oct 962 AD. She married William I of Poitou in 935 AD. He was born about 925 AD. He died on 03 Apr 963 AD.

ii.

WILLIAM (son of Ganger Rolf and Poppa) was born about 891 AD in probably Rouen, France. He died on 17 Dec 942 AD. He married LUITGARDE DE VERMANDOIS. She died in 942 AD. He married SPORTA.

 

Notes for William:

 

He was Duke of Normandy. He was murdered by Bothon, the Count ofBessin. Danish born Sporta was his first wife. He had a secondwife, Adelia, and they gave issue, but none of the names are recordedin my records.

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Descendants of Gor Thorrasson

Generation 9

11.

RICHARD DE ST. SAUVEUR (Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson).

 

Notes for Richard de St. Sauveur:

 

Richard was Viscount of the Cotentin in 933. He was joint LordChannel Islands. He founded the Chapel of St. Sauveur.

Richard de St. Sauveur had the following child:

13.

i.

NEIL (son of Richard de St. Sauveur).

Generation 10

12.

GERLOC (Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson). She died on 14 Oct 962 AD. She married William I of Poitou in 935 AD. He was born about 925 AD. He died on 03 Apr 963 AD.

Gerloc and William I of Poitou had the following child:

14.

i.

ADELAIDE OF POITOU (daughter of William I of Poitou and Gerloc) was born in 945 AD. She married Hugh Capet (son of Hugh Magnus and Hedwig) in 968 AD. He was born in 941 AD. He died on 24 Oct 996 AD in Les Juifs, Charres France.

13.

NEIL (Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson).

 

Notes for Neil:

 

Neil was Viscount de St. Sauveur. He was joint Lord of ChannelIsland.

Neil had the following child:

15.

i.

ROGER DE ST. SAUVEUR (son of Neil) was born about 945 AD in Saint-Sauveur, Ouilly-le-Vicomte, Basse-Normandie, France. He died in 1014 in St Sauveur, Manche, Basse-Normandie, France.

Generation 11

14.

ADELAIDE OF POITOU (Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,William I of Poitou) was born in 945 AD. She married Hugh Capet (son of Hugh Magnus and Hedwig) in 968 AD. He was born in 941 AD. He died on 24 Oct 996 AD in Les Juifs, Charres France.

 

 

Notes for Hugh Capet:

 

Hugh Capet was the first of the Capetian Kings of France.(Ancesterial Roots of Certain American Colonists, , Walter LeeShepard, Jr., 1992, p. 56, line 53-20)

Adelaide of Poitou and Hugh Capet had the following children:

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Descendants of Gor Thorrasson

Generation 11

16.

i.

AGNES (daughter of Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Poitou). She married RICHARD. He was born about 933 AD in Fecamp. He died on 20 Nov 966 AD.

17.

ii.

HEDWIG OF FRANCE (daughter of Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Poitou). She died after 1013. She married REGNIER. He was born about 950 AD. He died in 1013.

18.

iii.

ROBERT (son of Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Poitou) was born on 27 Mar 972 AD in Orleans, France. He died on 20 Jul 1031 in Melun, France. He married (1) CONSTANCE (daughter of William and Adelaide Anjou) in 998 AD. She was born about 986 AD. She died on 25 Jul 1032 in Melun, France. He married (2) BERTHA (daughter of Conrad and Matilda) in 995 AD. She was born about 964 AD.

15.

ROGER DE ST. SAUVEUR (Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson) was born about 945 AD in Saint-Sauveur, Ouilly-le-Vicomte, Basse-Normandie, France. He died in 1014 in St Sauveur, Manche, Basse-Normandie, France.

 

Notes for Roger de St. Sauveur:

 

He enlarged the Chapel of St. Sauveur. Here its about that faciility.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbey_of_Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte 

 

ROGER [I] (-after [990/1000]). A charter dated to [1136] records donations to the abbey of Saint-Sauveur, which it states was first constructed "tempore vetuli Ricardi comitis" (Richard II Duke of Normandy) "et Rogeri vicecomitis"[1391].

Roger de St. Sauveur had the following children:

19.

i.

NIGEL DE ST. SAUVEUR (son of Roger de St. Sauveur). He married HELENA. He married HELENA.

ii.

HAMON AUX DENTS (son of Roger de St. Sauveur).

 

Notes for Hamon aux Dents:

 

Hamon and Neil were twins. He was Lord of Crueli, Dapifer of DukeRobert of Normandy. He married his God child.

Generation 12

16.

AGNES (Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Hugh Capet, Hugh Magnus, Robert). She married RICHARD. He was born about 933 AD in Fecamp. He died on 20 Nov 966 AD.

 

Notes for Agnes:

 

She was Richard's second wife. His first and third marriages were tothe same woman, Gunnor.

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Descendants of Gor Thorrasson

Generation 12

 

Notes for Richard:

 

He was named his father's heir May 29, 942. He also was known asRichard, the Fearless. (Ancestoral Roots of Certain AmericanColonists, P. 110, Line 121E-20)

 

Richard I, called Richard the Good, is my third cousin, 30 timesremoved.

 

Richard I is the ancestor common to William the Conqueror and EdwardIII. William is to be the Norman King who conquerored England to takethe English crown after Edward III, his first cousin, once removed,had died. Richard is my third cousin, 30 times removed.

Agnes and Richard had the following child:

20.

i.

RICHARD (son of Richard and Agnes). He died on 28 Aug 1026. He married (1) JUDITH (daughter of Conan and Ermangarde) about 1000 AD. She was born about 982 AD. She died in 1017. He married (2) ASTRID (daughter of Swen) between 1000 AD-1024. He married (3) POPPA about 1024.

17.

HEDWIG OF FRANCE (Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Hugh Capet, Hugh Magnus, Robert). She died after 1013. She married REGNIER. He was born about 950 AD. He died in 1013.

Hedwig of France and Regnier had the following child:

i.

BEATRIX OF HAINAULT (daughter of Regnier and Hedwig of France). She married MANASSES CALVA ASINA. She married EBLES. He died in May 1033.

18.

ROBERT (Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Hugh Capet, Hugh Magnus, Robert) was born on 27 Mar 972 AD in Orleans, France. He died on 20 Jul 1031 in Melun, France. He married (1) CONSTANCE (daughter of William and Adelaide Anjou) in 998 AD. She was born about 986 AD. She died on 25 Jul 1032 in Melun, France. He married (2) BERTHA (daughter of Conrad and Matilda) in 995 AD. She was born about 964 AD.

 

 

Notes for Constance:

 

Constance was Robert's third wife. The names of the first two are notrecorded in these files.

Robert and Constance had the following children:

i.

ADELA (daughter of Robert and Constance). She married BALDWIN.

21.

ii.

HENRY (son of Robert and Constance) was born in 1008. He died on 04 Aug 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France. He married (1) ANNE (daughter of Jaroslaus and Ingegard) on 19 May 1051 in Riems, Germany. She was born in 1036 in La-Ferte-Alais. She died after 1075. He married (2) MATILDA (daughter of Mgve Liudorf) after 1030. She died in 1044.

19.

NIGEL DE ST. SAUVEUR (Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson). He married HELENA. He married HELENA.

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Descendants of Gor Thorrasson

Generation 12

Nigel de St. Sauveur and Helena had the following children:

22.

i.

NEIL DE ST. SAUVEUR (son of Nigel de St. Sauveur and Helena). He married ADELA.

ii.

ALBREDA (son of Nigel de St. Sauveur and Helena). He married MAUGHER ST. SAUEUR.

Generation 13

20.

RICHARD (Agnes, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Richard). He died on 28 Aug 1026. He married (1) JUDITH (daughter of Conan and Ermangarde) about 1000 AD. She was born about 982 AD. She died in 1017. He married (2) ASTRID (daughter of Swen) between 1000 AD-1024. He married (3) POPPA about 1024.

 

Notes for Richard:

 

Duke of Normandy.

 

Richard had many children by his first wife, Judith, and his thirdwife, Poppa. However, the only issue for whom we have a name isJudith's son, Robert I.

 

 

Notes for Judith:

 

Judith of Brittany.

Richard and Judith had the following children:

i.

RICHARD (son of Richard and Judith). He died in 1028.

 

Notes for Richard:

 

Was Duke of Normandy and was succeeded by his brother, Robert.

ii.

ELEANOR (daughter of Richard and Judith). She married BALDWIN.

23.

iii.

ROBERT (son of Richard and Judith). He died in Jul 1035. He married HERLEVA. She was born in Falasia, France.

iv.

ADELAIDE (daughter of Richard and Judith). She married REYNOLD.

v.

HELENA (daughter of Richard and Judith). She married NIGEL DE ST. SAUVEUR. She married ROGER DE TOENI.

vi.

ALBREDA (son of Richard and Judith).

vii.

ROBERT (son of Richard and Judith). He died on 22 Jul 1035. He married ARLETTE.

21.

HENRY (Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Robert, Hugh Capet, Hugh Magnus, Robert) was

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born in 1008. He died on 04 Aug 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France. He married (1) ANNE (daughter of Jaroslaus and Ingegard) on 19 May 1051 in Riems, Germany. She was born in 1036 in La-Ferte-Alais. She died after 1075. He married (2) MATILDA (daughter of Mgve Liudorf) after 1030. She died in 1044.

 

Notes for Henry:

 

Henry is my fifth cousin, twenty-eight times removed. He was King ofFrance from 1031 to 1060, was born about 1008, died in 1060 inVitry-aux-Loges (Vitry-en-Brie), buried at St. Denis. He was the Dukeof Burgundy 1015-1031. He is the least-known of all the CapetianKings; no one wrote about him in his lifetime, and the destruction ofthe archives shortly after his time has left a huge blank over thisperiod. All that is known is that his mother, Queen Constance,contested his right to the throne, which she wanted to go to Robert.This resulted in a war between the two brothers, of which little isknown. Henry won it by buying the support of his vassals, which costhim French Vexin and the total renunciation of the duchy of Burgundyin favor of his brother, in 1034.

 

Without the benefit of the coronation it is likely that Henry, whoappears to have been a mediocre man, would have been brushed aside.But the anointing brought him respect and won time for concessions.Managing to remain in power is after all a sign of stability, anddespite the obscurity of his reign it saw a strengthening of thedynasty. He was crowned co-king with his father in 1026.

 

He married (1) Matilda,daughter of Emperor Conrad II, niece ofEmperor Henry II. of Germany. The most interesting aspect of Henry'slife was his attempt to bring about a Franco-Russian alliance bymarriage. According to one record he then married (2) Matilda,daughter of Mgve Liudorf of Friesland. After the death of his secondwife Matilda in 1044, he married, rather late in life in Riems in1051, (3) Anne of Kiev, daughter of Yaroslav, the Russian head ofstate, and granddaughter of Valdimir I of Kiev, in Russia.

 

Source: http://www.xpda.com/family/ind01922.htm

 

 

Notes for Anne:

 

Anne was Henry's third wife. She was the daughter of Yaroslav, theRussian head of state, and granddaughter of Valdimir I of Kiev, inRussia.

 

Source: http://www.xpda.com/family/ind01922.htm

Henry and Anne had the following children:

24.

i.

HUGH MAGNUS (son of Henry and Anne) was born in 1053 in Of, Vermandois, France. He died in 1101. He married ADELAIDE DE VERMANDOIS.

25.

ii.

PHILIPPE (son of Henry and Anne) was born on 23 May 1052 in Reims, Champagne, France. He died on 29 Jul 1108 in the Castle of Melun, France.

iii.

EMMA (daughter of Henry and Anne) was born in 1054 in Of, Vermandois, France.

iv.

ROBERT (son of Henry and Anne) was born in 1055 in Of, Vermandois, France.

 

Notes for Robert:

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Also carried the title of Duke of Burgandy.

 

Source:http://gedcom.surnames.com/linkswiler_jane/i0003109.htm#i3109

22.

NEIL DE ST. SAUVEUR (Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson). He married ADELA.

 

Notes for Neil de St. Sauveur:

 

Neil succeeded to his father's estates in 1040 as Viscount of theCotentin. He revolted with other barons against Duke William ofNormandy in 047. He was banished by the Duke and settled atd'Aubigney in Brittany. Later, he was pardoned and the estates wererestored.

Neil de St. Sauveur and Adela had the following children:

26.

i.

WILLIAM ALBINI (son of Neil de St. Sauveur and Adela). He married ADELICA. He married FLESIS.

ii.

NEIL DE ST. SAUVEUR (son of Neil de St. Sauveur and Adela). He died in 1074.

 

Notes for Neil de St. Sauveur:

 

Viscount of the Cotentin

Generation 14

23.

ROBERT (Helena, Helena, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Richard, Richard). He died in Jul 1035. He married HERLEVA. She was born in Falasia, France.

 

Notes for Robert:

 

Robert was know as "the Magnificent" and "the Devil." He succeededhis brother, Richard III, as Duke of Normandy. He died whilereturning on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

 

 

Notes for Herleva:

 

She was of Danish origin.

Robert and Herleva had the following children:

27.

i.

WILLIAM (son of Robert and Herleva) was born in 1027 in Falaise, France. He died on 09 Sep 1087 in Rouen, England. He married Matilda between 1051-1053 in France. She was born in 1032. She died on 03 Nov 1083.

28.

ii.

ADELAIDE (daughter of Robert and Herleva) was born about 1030. She died before 1090. She married LAMBERT. He died in 1054 in The battle of Lille. She married ENGUERRAND. He died in 1053 in The siege of Arques. She married EUDES.

24.

HUGH MAGNUS (Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I

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Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Henry, Robert, Hugh Capet, Hugh Magnus, Robert) was born in 1053 in Of, Vermandois, France. He died in 1101. He married ADELAIDE DE VERMANDOIS.

Hugh Magnus and Adelaide de Vermandois had the following child:

29.

i.

ISABEL DE VERMANDOIS (daughter of Hugh Magnus and Adelaide de Vermandois). She died on 13 Feb 1131. She married ROBERT DE BEAUMONT. He died on 05 Jun 1118.

25.

PHILIPPE (Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Henry, Robert, Hugh Capet, Hugh Magnus, Robert) was born on 23 May 1052 in Reims, Champagne, France. He died on 29 Jul 1108 in the Castle of Melun, France.

 

Notes for Philippe:

 

Philippe is my sixth cousin, 27 times removed. Philippe is the fifthgreat grand son of Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, who is the 32nd greatgrandfather of mine. Eystein Glumra Ivarsson is our ancestor incommon. Philippe is a second cousin, once removed to King William theConquer.

 

Philippe is a first cousin, 32 times removed to my son-in-law, StevenO. Westmoreland. This makes our daughter, Tiffany Lenn SharpeWestmoreland a 6th cousin, 28 times removed to Philippe.

 

"Philip I (23 May 1052 ? 29 July 1108), called The Amorous[1] was Kingof France from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of theearly Direct Capetians, was extraordinarily long for the time. Themonarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reignof his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin and Bourges.

 

"Philip was the son of Henry I and Anne of Kiev. His name was of Greekorigin, being derived from Philippos, meaning "lover of horses". Itwas rather exotic for Western Europe at the time and was bestowed uponhim by his Eastern European mother. Although he was crowned king atthe age of seven, until age fourteen (1066) his mother acted asregent, the first queen of France ever to do so. Her co-regent wasBaldwin V of Flanders.

 

Philip first married Bertha, daughter of Floris I, Count of Holland,in 1072. Although the marriage produced the necessary heir, Philipfell in love with Bertrade de Montfort, the wife of Count Fulk IV ofAnjou. He repudiated Bertha (claiming she was too fat) and marriedBertrade on 15 May 1092. In 1094, he was excommunicated by Hugh,Archbishop of Lyon, for the first time; after a long silence, PopeUrban II repeated the excommunication at the Council of Clermont inNovember 1095. Several times the ban was lifted as Philip promised topart with Bertrade, but he always returned to her, and after 1104, theban was not repeated. In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo ofChartres, a famous jurist.

 

Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A greatpart of his reign, like his father's, was spent putting down revoltsby his power-hungry vassals. In 1077, he made peace with William theConqueror, who gave up attempting the conquest of Brittany. In 1082,Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin. Thenin 1100, he took control of Bourges.

 

"It was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont that the FirstCrusade was launched.

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Philip at first did not personally support itbecause of his conflict with Urban II. The pope would not have allowedhim to participate anyway, as he had reaffirmed Philip'sexcommunication at the said council. Philip's brother Hugh ofVermandois, however, was a major participant.

 

"Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per request at themonastery of Saint-BenoÓt-sur-Loire ? and not in St Denis among hisforefathers. He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose successionwas, however, not uncontested."

 

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_I_of_France

Philippe had the following child:

30.

i.

LOUIS (son of Philippe) was born on 01 Dec 1081 in Paris, France. He died on 01 Aug 1137 in Bethisy-Saint-Pierre, France. He married (1) LUCIENNE DE ROCHEFORT (daughter of Guy de Montlhery and Elizabeth dame de Crecy) in 1104. She was born in 1088 in France. She died after 1137. He married ADELAIDE OF MAURIENNE. She was born in 1092. She died on 18 Nov 1154.

26.

WILLIAM ALBINI (Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson). He married ADELICA. He married FLESIS.

 

Notes for William Albini:

 

He settled at Dol in Brittany. He was pincerna of King William I. He married first the Sister of Grimold de Flesis. He is the sixth cousin to King William. Another place indicates his role with King William was to be his Le Botellier or his butler.

William Albini and Adelica had the following child:

31.

i.

WILLIAM ALBINI (son of William Albini and Adelica).

Generation 15

27.

WILLIAM (Robert, Helena, Helena, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Robert, Richard, Richard) was born in 1027 in Falaise, France. He died on 09 Sep 1087 in Rouen, England. He married Matilda between 1051-1053 in France. She was born in 1032. She died on 03 Nov 1083.

 

Notes for William:

 

William the Conqueror is my seventh cousin, 26 times removed. The ancestor in common with William and me is the ninth century Norwegian Viking, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson. Glumra Ivarsson is William's sixth great grandfather and Glumra Ivarsson is my 32nd great grandfather on my Mother's Abney side of the family. William is the 17th great grandfather of affluent Englishman Edward Southworth, first husband of Alice Carpenter, on my Father's side of the family. Alice, through her second marriage, is my seventh great grandmother. William is the 31st great grandfather to my Westmoreland grandchildren: Katie, Jack, Lily, Sarah and Sam.

 

Early in his adult life, he was known as William II, Duke of Normandy. It was later that he became better known as William I, or William the Conqueror, King of England. He subdued rebellious vassals, defeated King Henry I of France at

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Val des Dunes (Henry is William's first cousin, twice removed). William defeated Harold, Saxon King of England at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. He was crowned King of England on December 22, 1066, according to some reports. Others place the coronation on Christmas day. The coronation was in Westminster Abbey. So, it can be said that this part of our family did not immigrate to England. They conquered it!

 

"William I, a Frenchman, was the first of many, many English Kings to be crowned in Westminster Abbey. Westminster Abbey marked the scene of many great events in English history. All the English rulers from the time of William the Conqueror, except Edward V and Edward VIII, were crowned there. Technically, William was not the actual first coronation in Westminster. Harold, the counselor to King Edward theConfessor, sought to usurp the crown upon Edward's death, in spite of William's coming to claim it. Harold had a rush job done to crown himself in Westminster Abbey. However, Harold's coronation, in a sense, does not count, as he was not of Royal blood. William was of Royal blood. In fact, William was a first cousin, once removed to King Edward the Confessor.

 

"What was the background about why William got involved in England?

 

"King Edward the Confessor (1002?-1066), an Anglo-Saxon king descended from Alfred the Great, was crowned in 1042. As king, Edward lacked influence among England's Anglo-Saxon nobles, because he had lived in the Normandy region of northwestern France before becoming king. Edward's Anglo-Saxon father-in-law, Godwin, Earl of Wessex, tried to dominate Edward's reign. Edward resisted Godwin's efforts by relying on Norman advisers and administrators. Godwin died in 1053.

 

"King Edward was a pious man. He founded Westminster Abbey in 1042, which was completed in 1065. In 1161, Pope Alexander III canonized Edward (declared him a saint) and gave him the title of Confessor.

 

"King Richard I is the ancestor common to William I and King Edward. Richard is the great grandfather of William, and the grandfather of Edward

 

"Edward was childless, and a dispute arose over who should succeed him. His first cousin, once removed, William, Duke of Normandy, claimed Edward had promised him the throne. But when Edward died in1066, the English nobles chose Harold, Godwin's son, as king. William then invaded England, defeated Harold, and was crowned king. So,William rallied the troops and stormed across the English Channel to make claim on Edward's alleged promise to him.

 

William invaded England on September 28, 1066 and prepared for victory.

 

"The Battle of Hastings Plans:

 

"Harold learned that William had landed at Pevensey in the south of England when he was in the north of the country recovering Stamford Bridge and York. He marched his troops south as fast as possible, stopping in London for reinforcements. He took up position at Caldbec Hill, along the Sentlache Ridge, a few miles north of Hastings. As the ridge had deep ravines, streams and marshy ground on either side, Harold blocked William's only road out of the Hastings peninsula so forcing him into a frontal attack. By positioning his army at the top of the hill, he had clear visibility all around him and forced William's army into continually running up the hill to attack. Harold built a shield wall that stretched in rows along the ridge and which was made up of his housecarls, thegns (nobles) and fyrdmen. Being skilled fighters, the housecarls and thegns were positioned in between the fyrdmen who were unskilled, poorly armed and inexperienced peasant soldiers. Harold expected the wall to hold firm against assault and for William's men to tire and weaken from having to attack uphill. This would eventually allow Harold's army to launch a counter-attack with

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relatively fresh troops strong enough to defeat the opponent.

 

"William was unprepared for Harold's speedy arrival at Caldbec Hill, but quickly gathered his troops and went to meet him at Senlache. His army was divided into three sections, each with a commander. The left section comprised mainly of Bretons, the central section were Norman under William's command, and the right section was made up of the French and Flemish. Each section was divided into three rows - the archers, the infantry and the cavalry. William's plan was to use the archers first to send their arrows into the English ranks, followed by the infantry in hand-to-hand combat and to finally advance with the cavalry who had the height and power of being on horseback. The effect would be a three pronged attack and a gradual build up in power that would demoralize the English.

 

"THE BATTLE:

 

"The battle took all day beginning early in the morning of 14th October 1066 with William's archers firing the first arrows into English ranks. William followed up his plan with an attack by the infantry and then by the cavalry, but Harold's army was stronger than expected and William's army sustained many casualties. The Bretons on the left flank panicked due to their lack of experience, the unexpected strength of Harold's army and the noise and confusion. They failed to keep in line and got ahead of the other two sections on their right. In their panic they began to retreat. Harold's less experienced fighters broke rank when they saw the Bretons retreating, and William's army slaughtered them.

 

"William retreated and regrouped. The second and following assaults went according to William's plan and he supported his troops by joining in the charge on horseback. Both sides became more tired as the day wore on and suffered heavy casualties. As the supply of arrows was running low, William ordered the archers to fire them high into the air for the final assault so that they fell into the rear ranks of the English army. This caused high casualties and the collapse of the English shield wall. The Norman's penetrated the ranks and killed Harold. With the morale of the English troops shattered by the death of their leader, the battle ended in defeat for the English, although the housecarls (the Pingalio) and thegns continued to fight to their deaths. However, more recently, historian Nicholas Hooper criticised Larson and stated that "it is time to debunk the housecarl"; according to Hooper, housecarls were not in effect distinguishable from Saxon thegns, and were mainly retainers who received lands or pay (or both), but without being really a standing army. Hooper asserts that while the Housecarles might well have had superior esprit de corps and more uniform training and equipment than the average Thegn, they would not necessarily have been a clearly defined military elite. Over the following months, William captured Canterbury, Winchester and London.He was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066.

 

"WHY DID HAROLD LOSE?

 

"Harold was badly prepared to face William's troops. William had spent months preparing for invasion in a secure position and environment in Normandy. Harold's tenure as king was weak from the time of his accession and, although aware of the threat from Normandy, he was occupied by other events at home.

 

"William built up his army and support in feudal tradition promising lands in England to those who joined his army and eternal paradise to anyone who died during the battle. He'd also obtained the approval of the Pope in his plans so gaining greater support and turning the invasion into a crusade. The knights were recruited with their own horses, men and equipment. Over the months, William's army was rigorously disciplined and trained before being ready to sail forEngland, but they had to wait until September before having a favorable wind. William's plans suffered a set back when the fleet got caught in a storm and he had to take refuge and regroup in the Sommeestuary. However, as a result, the distance he had to cover in his crossing was considerably shorter and the next opportunity

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he had to sail was at the time when Harold was in the north of England.

 

"William's decision to land at Pevensey was important. Pevensey was on a lagoon to the west of Hastings and was a scarcely populated area. The lagoon was a shelter from the weather as the ships could be beached high up on the land at high tide. The Hastings peninsula was bordered by Pevensey Lagoon to the west and the River Brede to the east so providing it with natural protection from attack and only one way in and out of the peninsula to the main land in the north.

 

"William quickly established his presence on the peninsula including building up the Roman Fort at Pevensey and taking Hastings.

 

"Harold was not so lucky in his plans. Some weeks before the invasion, he had mobilized troops along the coast and sent his navy to the Isle of Wight to intercept William's fleet, but he was unable to keep them there, as they became demoralized waiting for William's army to set sail and concerned about gathering in the harvest in their home towns. Harold disbanded them at the beginning of September and lost many of his ships in the same storm from which William had been forced to take refuge. When he received news that William had landed at Pevensey, Harold was fighting the invasion of Harald Hardrada of Norway in the north.

 

"Despite his battle plan and his choice of a strategic location, Harold's army was exhausted from having to travel north and fight at Stamford Bridge, and then hastily return south without time to rest. Harold's support from the north was limited, and, although the Earls of Mercia and Northumberland had begun riding south, they turned back when they heard of Harold's death. Except for the housecarls and thegns, Harold's men were not trained and did not have the distant attack advantage of the archers or the power of the cavalry. In accordance with English tradition, those of Harold's army who were on horseback rode to the battle location and then fought on foot while William's cavalry walked to the location and then mounted for battle.

 

"THE RESULTS

 

"William was crowned king of England on Christmas Day 1066 (some say December 22 instead). There followed 88 years of Norman rule. The French and English cultures merged and the feudal system was introduced. This led to a tough discipline and training and it took away much of the Anglo-Saxon's freedom and rights. England's strength grew and she became a powerful force in European politics because of her tie with Normandy. Her army and navy were built up as well.

 

In 1085 William ordered a survey of English assets and this became known as the "Doomsday Book." William's reign was not easy, and there were rebellions which were quickly suppressed, but the Norman Conquest changed the face of England forever."

 

Source: World Book Encyclopedia, CD version, 1998

 

AND HERE ARE THE LATEST WORDS!

 

There is another claim of world significance made for King William I, as learned from the lectures of University of North Carolina English literature professor, Dr. Elliott Engel. Dr. Engel highlighted the historical fact that conquerors of the world traditionally required the conquered peoples to use for language in commerce and in government the language of the conqueror. William the Conqueror chose not to do that. He allowed the conquered English people to continue their language in commerce and in government transactions, while theFrench of the conquerors became commingled, often using French and English words in the same sentences so that people from both backgrounds would understand the

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meanings. These French words, in reality, became embedded into the English language, thus being a major reason that English has evolved into being the language of the world having the largest number of words.

 

So, it can be said that William the Conqueror is responsible to a large degree for the English language having the largest vocabulary in the world. In Dr. Elliott's 1994 lecture at the Richardson, Texas Civic Center, he said that the Oxford Dictionary then contained about 450,000 words. He said that a complete French dictionary would have about 150,000 words and that a complete Russian dictionary would have about 130,000 words.

 

"The history of Windsor Castle begins in the year 1070, when William the Conqueror built the original wooden structure located in what is now the inner most point of the castle. William chose the site for its superior military advantages; namely, that attackers would have to battle uphill in order to reach and overtake the castle. Although none of original wooden structure built by William remains in the Windsor Castle of today, the modern Windsor Castle still occupies the same ground. Henry II was the first monarch to transform the wooden fortress to a stronghold of stone, adding a stonewall which stood tall around Windsor Castle England. Parts of this wall can still be seen today."

 

Source:http://www.destination360.com/europe/uk/windsor-castle.php 

 

William died September 9, 1087 from wounds received in a battle at Mantes, England. After being wounded he died at Rouen, England.

 

The New Law of the Land as set down by William the Conqueror and his advisors:

 

"First that above all things he wishes one God to be revered throughout his whole realm, one faith in Christ to be kept ever inviolate, and peace and security to be preserved between English and Normans.

 

"We decree also that every freeman shall affirm by oath and compact that he will be loyal to king William both within and without England, that he will preserve with him his lands and honor with all fidelity and defend him against his enemies.

 

"I will, moreover, that all the men I have brought with me, or who have come after me, shall be protected by my peace and shall dwell in quiet. And if any one of them shall be slain, let the lord of his murderer seize him within five days, if he can; but if he cannot, let him pay me 46 marks of silver so long as his substance avails. And when his substance is exhausted, let the whole hundred in which the murder took place pay what remains in common.

 

"And let every Frenchman who, in the time of king Edward, my kinsman, was a sharer in the customs of the English, pay what they call "Scotand lot", according to the laws of the English. This decree was ordained in the city of Gloucester.

 

"We forbid also that any live cattle shall be bought or sold for money except within cities, and this shall be done before three faithful witnesses; nor even anything old without surety and warrant. But if anyone shall do otherwise, let him pay once, and afterwards a second time for a fine.

 

"It was decreed there that if a Frenchman shall charge an Englishman with perjury or murder or theft or homicide or "ran," as the English call open rapine, which cannot be denied, the Englishman may defend himself, as he shall prefer, either by the ordeal of hot iron or by wager of battle. But if the Englishman be infirm, let him find another who will take his place. If one of them shall be vanquished, he shall pay a fine of 40 shillings to the king. If an Englishman shall charge a Frenchman and be unwilling to prove his accusation, either by

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ordeal or by wager of battle, I will, nevertheless, that the Frenchman shall acquit himself by a valid oath.

 

"This also I command and will, that all shall have and hold the law of the king Edward in respect of their lands and all their possessions, with the addition of those decrees I have ordained for the welfare of the English people.

 

"Every man who wishes to be considered a freeman shall be in pledge so that his surety shall hold him and hand him over to justice, if he shall offend in any way. And if any such shall escape, let his sureties see to it that they pay forthwith what is charge against him, and let them clear themselves of any complicity in his escape. Let recourse be had to the hundred and shire courts as our predecessors decreed. And those who ought of right to come and are unwilling to appear, shall be summoned once; and, if for the second time they refuse to come, one ox shall be taken from them, and they shall be summoned a third time. And if they do not come the third time, a second ox shall be taken from them. But if they do not come the fourth summons, the man who is unwilling to come shall forfeit from his goods the amount of the charge against him, "ceapgeld" as it is called, and in addition to this a fine to the king.

 

"I prohibit the sale of any man by another outside the country on pain of a fine to be paid in full to me.

 

"I also forbid that anyone shall be slain or hanged for any fault, but let his eyes be put out and let him be castrated. And this command shall not be violated under pain of a fine in full to me."

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/laws.html 

 

In 1066, Halley's Comet was seen in England May 16 and thought to be abad omen. Later that year Harold II of England died at the Battle of Hastings on October 14. Illustration of Halley's Comet is shown on the Bayeux Tapestry, and the accounts which have been preserved represent it as having then appeared to be four times the size of Venus, and to have shone with a light equal to a quarter of that of the Moon.

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Halley 

 

 

It is a positive note for me to discover that the number one priority in William's list of law principles cited above centers upon the worship of God through Christ. The fierceness of William's conquering activities had led me to believe he was pagan, which was the Norman's Norwegians' roots. However, the Roman Catholic Church, the main Church of Europe in those years, apparently had its influence onWilliam in his French Norman rearing.

 

"Windsor Castle was originally built by William the Conqueror, who reigned from 1066 until his death in 1087. His original wooden castle stood on the site of the present Round Tower ("A"). The castle formed part of his defensive ring of castles surrounding London, the site chosen in part because of its easily defendable position.

 

"Early in William's reign he had taken possession of a manor in what today is Old Windsor, probably a Saxon royal residence. A short time later between 1070 and 1086, he leased the site of the present castle from the Manor of Clewer and built the first motte-and-bailey castle.The motte is 50-feet high and consists of chalk excavated from a surrounding ditch, which then became a moat.

 

"At this time the castle was defended by a wooden palisade rather than the thick stone walls seen today. The original plan of William the Conqueror's castle is unknown, but it was

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purely a military base and nothing structural survives from this early period. From that time onwards the castle has remained in continuous use and has undergone numerous additions and improvements. His successor William II is thought to have improved and enlarged the structure, but the Conqueror's youngest son King Henry I was the first sovereign to live within the castle.

 

"Windsor Castle (51∞29'02?N, 0∞36'16?W) is the largest inhabited castle in the world and the oldest in continuous occupation. Together with Buckingham Palace in London and Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh it is one of the principal official residences of the British monarch. The castle is located in the Berkshire town of Windsor, in the Thames Valley to the west of London.

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windsor_Castle 

 

Yet, both in Normandy and in England, William was faithful to tradition, and in England, especially, it became a cardinal feature of his administration to respect, and to utilize, the customs of the kingdom he had conquered. This is especially documented in David C. Douglas's book, "William the Conqueror," Chapter 12 (pp. 289-316).

 

Source: David C. Douglas, "William the Conqueror," University of California Press, C 1964 ISBM 0-520-00350-0 (this book is in my personal library)

 

Another famous landmark of London, nestled on the River Thames, is the Tower of London.

 

"According to Shakespeare, in his play Richard III, the Tower of London was first built by Julius Caesar. This supposed Roman origin is, however, just a myth. Its true foundation was in 1078 when William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built. This was as much to protect the Normans from the people of the City of London as to protect London from outside invaders. William ordered the Tower to be built of stone which he had specially imported from France. He chose this location because he considered it to be a strategic point being opposite the site where Earl Godwin had landed in Southwark in 1051during his Saxon rebellion against the Norman influence of Edward the Confessor. It was King Richard the Lion Heart who had the moat dug around the surrounding wall and filled with water from the Thames. The moat was not very successful until Henry III employed a Dutch moat building technique. The moat was drained in 1830, and human bones were in the refuse found at its bottom."

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_of_London 

 

 

 

Notes for Matilda:

 

Known as Mathilda of Flanders

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon24.html

William and Matilda had the following children:

32.

i.

ROBERT (son of William and Matilda) was born about 1051. He died on 10 Feb 1134.

ii.

RICHARD (son of William and Matilda) was born before 1056. He died in 1075.

iii.

WILLIAM (son of William and Matilda) was born about 1057. He died on 02 Aug

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1100 in an occasion while hunting in the New Forest.

 

Notes for William:

 

William was born the year Macbeth, the King of Scotland, was slain bythe son of King Duncan. William is my eighth cousin, 25 timesremoved.

 

William II (1057?-1100) became king of England in 1087. He was theson of William I, the Conqueror. William II was called Rufus, meaningred, because of his ruddy complexion. He was an effective andpowerful ruler, but his personal morality and his infringements onchurch rights led the clergy to denounce him and have given him a badreputation among historians.

 

In 1088, several powerful Norman barons revolted against William. Heput down the revolt and thus strengthened his position as king.Later, he gained control of Normandy by financing the crusadingventures of his brother Robert, Duke of Normandy. He also invadedScotland and brought it under his control in 1097.

 

William's reign was marked by a bitter quarrel with the Roman CatholicChurch. After the archbishop of Canterbury died in 1089, William didnot appoint a replacement so that he could collect the district'srevenues for himself. When William fell seriously ill in 1093, hewelcomed Anselm as archbishop in order to atone for his sins. Butwhen he recovered his health, he forced Anselm into exile. An arrowshot by a fellow hunter killed William while he was hunting. Theclergy refused to give him a church funeral.

 

Source: Joel T. Rosenthal, Ph.D., Prof. of History, State Univ. of NewYork, Stony Brook, World Book Encyclopedia CD 1998.

 

William II earned the nickname Rufus either because of his red hair orhis propensity for anger. William Rufus never married and had nooffspring. The manner in which William the Conqueror divided hispossessions caused turmoil among his sons: his eldest son Robertreceived the duchy of Normandy, William Rufus acquired England, andhis youngest son Henry inherited 5000 pounds of silver. The contentionbetween the brothers may have exerted an influence on the poor lightin which William Rufus was historically portrayed.

 

Many Norman barons owned property on both sides of the English Channeland found themselves in the midst of a tremendous power play. Hesitantto declare sides, most of the barons eventually aligned with Robertdue to William Rufus' cruelty and avarice. Robert, however, failed tomake an appearance in England and William Rufus quelled the rebellion.He turned his sights to Normandy in 1089, bribing Norman barons forsupport and subsequently eroding his brother's power base. In 1096,Robert, tired of governing and quarreling with his brothers, pawnedNormandy to William Rufus for 10,000 marks to finance his departure tothe Holy Land on the first Crusade. Robert regained possession of theduchy after William Rufus' death in 1100.

 

William Rufus employed all the powers of the crown to secure wealth.He manipulated feudal law to the benefit of the royal treasury: shirecourts levied heavy fines, confiscation and forfeitures were harshlyenforced, and exorbitant inheritance taxes were imposed. His fiscalpolicies included (and antagonized) the church - William Rufus had norespect for the clergy and they none for him. He bolstered the royalrevenue by leaving sees open and diverting the

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money into his coffers.He treated the Church as nothing more than a rich corporationdeserving of heavy taxing at a time when the Church was gaining ininfluence through the Gregorian reforms of the eleventh century. Aidedby his sharp-witted minister, Ranulf Flambard, William Rufus greatlyprofited from clerical vacancies. The failed appointment andpersecution of Anselm, Abbot of Bec, as the Archbishop of Canterburyin 1093 added fuel to the historical denigration of William II; mostcontemporary writings were done by monks, who cared little for thecrass, blasphemous king.

 

On August 2, 1100, William Rufus was struck in the eye by an arrow andkilled while hunting. Whether the arrow was a stray shot orpremeditated murder is still under debate. 1066 and All That, a satireon medieval government, remembers William II in a unique manner:"William Rufus was always very angry and red in the face and wastherefore unpopular, so that his death was a Good Thing."

 

Source:http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon23.html

33.

iv.

ADELA (daughter of William and Matilda) was born about 1062. She died on 08 Mar 1137. She married Stephen in 1080.

v.

CONSTANCE (daughter of William and Matilda) was born about 1066 in Normandy, France. She died on 13 Aug 1090 in St. Melans, Rhedon. She married ALAN FERGAUNT. He died on 13 Oct 1119. She married (2) ALAN in 1086 in Caen.

 

Notes for Constance:

 

Constance was born about the year that her father, King William theConqueror, was crowned King of England on Christmas day, 1066.

34.

vi.

HENRY (son of William and Matilda) was born in 1068. He died on 01 Dec 1135. He married (1) MATILDA OF SCOTLAND (daughter of Malcolm III Canmore and Margaret) on 11 Nov 1100. She was born in 1079. She died on 01 May 1118. He married ADELIZA OF LOUVAIN. She was born about 1103. She died on 23 Apr 1151. He married SYBIL CORBET. He married NESTA. He married EADGYTH.

vii.

AGATHA (daughter of William and Matilda) was born after 1068.

 

Notes for Agatha:

 

Though Agatha was betrothed three times, she never married.

viii.

ADELIZA (daughter of William and Matilda) was born after 1068.

ix.

CECILY (child of William and Matilda) was born after 1068. Cecily died in 1127.

x.

MATILTA (daughter of William and Matilda) was born after 1068.

28.

ADELAIDE (Robert, Helena, Helena, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1

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Thorrasson,Robert, Richard, Richard) was born about 1030. She died before 1090. She married LAMBERT. He died in 1054 in The battle of Lille. She married ENGUERRAND. He died in 1053 in The siege of Arques. She married EUDES.

 

 

Notes for Lambert:

 

Lambert of Lens.

Adelaide and Lambert had the following child:

i.

JUDITH OF LENS (daughter of Lambert and Adelaide) was born in 1054. She married WALTHEOF. He died on 31 May 1076 in Winchester, beheaded.

 

 

Notes for Eudes:

 

He was due the title of Count of Champagne, but he was deprived of itby his uncle, Theobad before 1071.

29.

ISABEL DE VERMANDOIS (Hugh Magnus, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Hugh Magnus, Henry, Robert, Hugh Capet, Hugh Magnus, Robert). She died on 13 Feb 1131. She married ROBERT DE BEAUMONT. He died on 05 Jun 1118.

 

Notes for Isabel de Vermandois:

 

This was Isabel's first marriage, but we do not have information aboutthe assumed subsequent marriage(s).

Isabel de Vermandois and Robert de Beaumont had the following child:

35.

i.

ROBERT DE BEAUMONT (son of Robert de Beaumont and Isabel de Vermandois) was born in 1104. He died on 05 Apr 1168. He married Amice de Montfort (daughter of Ralph de Gael de Montfort) after Nov 1120.

30.

LOUIS (Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Philippe, Henry, Robert, Hugh Capet, Hugh Magnus, Robert) was born on 01 Dec 1081 in Paris, France. He died on 01 Aug 1137 in Bethisy-Saint-Pierre, France. He married (1) LUCIENNE DE ROCHEFORT (daughter of Guy de Montlhery and Elizabeth dame de Crecy) in 1104. She was born in 1088 in France. She died after 1137. He married ADELAIDE OF MAURIENNE. She was born in 1092. She died on 18 Nov 1154.

 

Notes for Louis:

 

French King Louis VI is my seventh cousin, 26 times removed. Ourancestors in common are Eystein Glumra Ivarsson and AsedaRognvaldsdatter, nineth century Norweign Vikings who are King Louis'sixth great grandparents and my 32nd great grandparents.

 

"Louis VI, called the Fat (French: le Gros), was King of France from1108 until his death (1137). Chronicles called him 'roi deSaint-Denis'. The first member of the House of Capet to make a lastingcontribution to the centralizing institutions of royal power,[1] Louiswas born in Paris, the son of Philip I and his first wife, Bertha ofHolland. Almost all of his twenty-nine-year reign was spent fightingeither the 'robber barons' who plagued Paris or the Norman

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kings ofEngland for their continental possession of Normandy. Nonetheless,Louis VI managed to reinforce his power considerably and became one ofthe first strong kings of France since the division of the CarolingianEmpire. His biography by his constant advisor Abbot Suger of SaintDenis renders him a fully-rounded character to the historian, unlikemost of his predecessors.

 

"In his youth, Louis fought the duke of Normandy, Robert Curthose, andthe lords of the royal demesne, the Œle de France. He became close toSuger, who became his adviser. He succeeded his father on Philip'sdeath on July 29, 1108. Louis's half-brother prevented him fromreaching Rheims and so he was crowned on August 3 in the cathedral ofOrlÈans by Daimbert, Archbishop of Sens. The archbishop of Reims,Ralph the Green, sent envoys to challenge the validity of thecoronation and anointing, but to no avail.

 

"On Palm Sunday 1115, Louis was present in Amiens to support thebishop and inhabitants of the city in their conflict with Enguerrand Iof Coucy, one of his vassals, who refused to recognize the granting ofa charter of communal privileges. Louis came with an army to help thecitizens to besiege Castillon (the fortress dominating the city, fromwhich Enguerrand was making punitive expeditions). At the siege, theking took an arrow to his hauberk, but the castle, consideredimpregnable, fell after two years.

 

"Louis VI died on August 1, 1137, at the castle ofBÈthisy-Saint-Pierre, nearby Senlis and CompiËgne, of dysentery causedby his excesses, which had made him obese. He was interred in SaintDenis Basilica. He was succeeded on the throne by his son Louis VII,called 'the Younger,' who had originally wanted to be a monk."

 

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_VI_of_France

 

 

Notes for Lucienne de Rochefort:

 

"Lucienne de Rochefort was the first wife of Louis VI of France from1104-1107. The daughter of Guy de Montlhery and Elizabeth, dame deCrecy, she married Louis in 1104 and together they would have onedaughter, Isabelle, born in 1105. Lucienne and Louis did not have anysons, though, and he repudiated her in 1107, a year before he becameking. She later married Guichard IV of Beaujeu, and together they hadtwo children. Lucienne died after 1137."

 

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucienne_de_Rochefort

Louis and Adelaide of Maurienne had the following child:

i.

LOUIS (son of Louis and Adelaide of Maurienne). He married ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE. She was born in 1123. She died in 1204.

 

Notes for Louis:

 

French King Louis VII is my eights cousin, 25 times removed. Ourancestors in common are Eystein Glumra Ivarsson and AsedaRognvaldsdatter, nineth century Norweign Vikings who are King Louis'seventh great grandparents and my 32nd great grandparents.

 

"Louis VII, called the Younger or the Young (French: Louis le Jeune;1120 ? 18 September 1180), was King of France, the son and successorof Louis VI (hence his nickname). He ruled from 1137 until his death.He was a member of the House of Capet. His reign was dominated byfeudal struggles (in particular with the Angevin family), and saw thebeginning of the long feud between France and England. It also saw thebeginning of construction on Notre-Dame

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de Paris and the disastrousSecond Crusade.

 

"The reign of Louis VII was, from the point of view of royal territoryand military power a difficult and unfortunate one. Yet the royalauthority made progress in the parts of France distant from the royaldomains: more direct and more frequent connection was made withdistant vassals, a result largely due to the alliance of the clergywith the crown. Louis VII thus reaped the reward for services renderedthe church during the least successful portion of his reign. Hisgreater accomplishments lie in the development of agriculture,population, commerce, the building of stone fortresses, as well as anintellectual renaissance. Considering the significant disparity ofpolitical leverage and financial resources between Louis VII and hisAngevin rival, not to mention Henry II's superior military skills,Louis VII should be credited with preserving the Capetian dynasty."

 

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_VII_of_France

31.

WILLIAM ALBINI (William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson).

 

Notes for William Albini:

 

William held Stacknorn and Belvoir. He acquired lands in England after the conquest, among which was le Meschin.

William Albini had the following child:

36.

i.

WILLIAM ALBINI (son of William Albini). He married CECELIA BIGOD.

Generation 16

32.

ROBERT (William, Robert, Helena, Helena, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,William, Robert, Richard, Richard) was born about 1051. He died on 10 Feb 1134.

 

Notes for Robert:

 

Duke of Normandy

Robert had the following child:

i.

WILLAIM (son of Robert).

33.

ADELA (William, Robert, Helena, Helena, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,William, Robert, Richard, Richard) was born about 1062. She died on 08 Mar 1137. She married Stephen in 1080.

Adela and Stephen had the following child:

i.

STEPHEN (son of Stephen and Adela) was born in 1097. He died in 1154.

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Notes for Stephen:

 

Stephen was a king of England whose reign was so full of strife thatit came to be known as The Anarchy. Stephen was a son of Adela,daughter of William the Conqueror. He claimed the throne afterWilliam's son King Henry I died in 1135. But Henry's daughter Matildachallenged Stephen's claim. Stephen fought Matilda and her supportersfor most of his reign. Finally, in 1153, Stephen recognized as hissuccessor Matilda's son Henry, who became the first Plantagenet kingas Henry II in 1154.

 

Stephen was the grandson of William the Conqueror and about half-dozenyears older than his cousin and rival for the throne, Matilda(daughter of Henry I). After his father's death in 1102, Stephen wasraised by his uncle, Henry I. Henry was genuinely fond of Stephen, andgranted his nephew estates on both sides of the English Channel. By1130, Stephen was the richest man in England and Normandy.

 

Stephen's reign was one of the darkest chapters in English history. Hewas basically a good man - well respected by the barons and closelytied to the church - but possessed a conciliatory character andlimited scope of kingship. Stephen had promised to recognize hiscousin Matilda as lawful heir, but like many of the English/Normannobles, was unwilling to yield the crown to a woman. He receivedrecognition as king by the papacy through the machinations of hisbrother Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, and gathered supportfrom the barons. Matilda was in Anjou at the time of Henry's death andStephen, in a rare exhibition of resolve, crossed the Channel and wascrowned king by the citizens of London on December 22, 1135.

 

Stephen's first few years as king were relatively calm but hischaracter flaws were quickly revealed. Soon after his coronation, twobarons each seized a royal castle in different parts of the country;unlike his hot-tempered and vengeful Norman predecessors, Stephenfailed to act against the errant barons. Thus began the slow erosionof Stephen's authority as increasing numbers of barons did little morethan honor their basic feudal obligations to the king. Stephen failedto keep law and order as headstrong barons increasingly seizedproperty illegally. He granted huge tracts of land to the Scottishking to end Scottish and Welsh attacks on the frontiers. He succumbedto an unfavorable treaty with Geoffrey of Anjou to end hostilities inNormandy. Stephen's relationship with the Church also deteriorated: heallowed the Church much judicial latitude (at the cost of royalauthority) but alienated the Church by his persecution of Roger,Bishop of Salisbury in 1139. Stephen's jealous tirade against Rogerand his fellow officials seriously disrupted the administration of therealm.

 

Matilda, biding her time on the continent, decided the time was rightto assert her hereditary rights. Accompanied by her second husbandGeoffrey of Anjou and her half-brother Robert, Earl of Gloucester,Matilda invaded England in the fall of 1139. The trio dominatedwestern England and joined a rebellion against Stephen in 1141. Robertcaptured Stephen in battle at Lincoln; Stephen's government collapsedand Matilda was recognized as Queen. The contentious and arrogantMatilda quickly angered the citizens of London and was expelled fromthe city. Stephen's forces rallied, captured Robert, and exchanged theEarl for the King. Matilda had been defeated but the successionremained in dispute: Stephen wanted his son Eustace to be named heir,and Matilda wanted her son Henry Fritz, Empress to succeed to thecrown. Civil war continued until Matilda departed for France in1148.The

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succession dispute remained an issue, as the virtually independentbarons were reluctant to choose sides from fear of losing personalpower. The problem of succession was resolved in 1153 when Eustacedied and Henry came to England to battle for both his own rights andthose of his mother. The two sides finally reached a compromise withthe Treaty of Wallingford - Stephen would rule unopposed until hisdeath but the throne would pass to Henry of Anjou.

 

Stephen died less than a year later in 1154. 1066 and All That offersa humorous but accurate account of the civil war: ". . .Stephen andMatilda (or Maud) spent the reign escaping from each other over thesnow in nightgowns. . ." The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle addressed both thevirtues of the man, and the nature of the era: "In the days of thisKing there was nothing but strife, evil, and robbery, for quickly thegreat men who were traitors rose against him. When the traitors sawthat Stephen was a good-humored, kindly, and easy-going man whoinflicted no punishment, then they committed all manner of horriblecrimes . . . And so it lasted for nineteen years while Stephen wasKing, till the land was all undone and darkened with such deeds, andmen said openly that Christ and his angels slept."

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon25.html

34.

HENRY (William, Robert, Helena, Helena, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,William, Robert, Richard, Richard) was born in 1068. He died on 01 Dec 1135. He married (1) MATILDA OF SCOTLAND (daughter of Malcolm III Canmore and Margaret) on 11 Nov 1100. She was born in 1079. She died on 01 May 1118. He married ADELIZA OF LOUVAIN. She was born about 1103. She died on 23 Apr 1151. He married SYBIL CORBET. He married NESTA. He married EADGYTH.

 

Notes for Henry:

 

Henry I (1068-1135), a king of England, is the youngest son of William the Conqueror. King Henry is my seventh cousin, 26 times removed. He succeeded his brother King William II in 1100. Henry married Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and his wife, Margaret, a member of the Saxon royal house of England. This was Henry's fourth marriage. Thus, Henry gained the support of his Saxon subjects and strengthened his descendants' claim to the throne.

 

"Henry promoted centralized rule and gave the royal courts greater authority. He seized Normandy from his eldest brother, Robert, in1106 and later prevented Robert's son, William, from taking control of what had been his father's lands. After his own son's tragic death by shipwreck, Henry arranged for his daughter, Matilda, to succeed him. But when Henry died, his nephew Stephen became King.

 

"Henry I, the most resilient of the Norman kings (his reign lasted thirty-five years), was nicknamed "Beauclerc" (fine scholar) for his above average education. During his reign, the differences between English and Norman society began slowly to evaporate. Reforms in the royal treasury system became the foundation upon which later kings built. The stability Henry afforded the throne was offset by problems in succession: his only surviving son, William, was lost in the wreck of the White Ship in November 1120.

 

"The first years of Henry's reign were concerned with subduing Normandy. William the Conqueror divided his kingdoms between Henry's older brothers, leaving England to William Rufus and Normandy to Robert. Henry inherited no land, but received £5000 in silver. He

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played each brother off of the other during their quarrels; both distrusted Henry and subsequently signed a mutual accession treaty barring Henry from the crown. Henry's hope arose when Robert departed for the Holy Land on the First Crusade; should William die, Henry was the obvious heir. Henry was in the woods hunting on the morning of August 2, 1100 when William Rufus was killed by an arrow. His quick movement in securing the crown on August 5 led many to believe he was responsible for his brother's death. In his coronation charter, Henry denounced William's oppressive policies and promising good government in an effort to appease his barons. Robert returned to Normandy a few weeks later, but escaped final defeat until the Battle of Tinchebrai in1106; Robert was captured and lived the remaining twenty-eight years of his life as Henry's prisoner.

 

"Henry was drawn into controversy with a rapidly expanding Church. Lay investiture, the king's selling of clergy appointments, was heavily opposed by Gregorian reformers in the Church, but was a cornerstone of Norman government. Henry recalled Anselm of Bec to the archbishopric of Canterbury to gain Baronial support, but the stubborn Anselm refused to do homage to Henry for his lands. The situation remained unresolved until Pope Paschal II threatened Henry with excommunication in 1105. He reached a compromise with the papacy: Henry rescinded the king's divine authority in conferring sacred offices, but appointees continued to do homage for their fiefs. In practice, it changed little. The king maintained the deciding voice in appointing ecclesiastical offices, but it a marked a point where kingship became purely secular and subservient in the eyes of the Church.

 

"By 1106, both the quarrels with the church and the conquest of Normandy were settled and Henry concentrated on expanding royal power. He mixed generosity with violence in motivating allegiance to the crown and appointing loyal and gifted men to administrative positions. By raising men out of obscurity for such appointments, Henry began to rely less on landed Barons as ministers and created a loyal bureaucracy.

 

"He was deeply involved in continental affairs, and therefore spent almost half of his time in Normandy, prompting him to create the position of justiciar - the most trusted of all the king's officials. The justiciar literally ruled in the king's stead.

 

"Roger of Salisbury, the first justiciar, was instrumental in organizing an efficient department for collection of royal revenues, the Exchequer. The Exchequer held sessions twice a year for sheriffs and other revenue-collecting officials; these officials appeared before the justiciar, the chancellor, and several clerks to render an account of their finances. The Exchequer was an ingenious device for balancing amounts owed versus amounts paid. Henry gained notoriety for sending out court officials to judge local financial disputes (weakening the feudal courts controlled by local lords) and curbing errant sheriffs (weakening the power bestowed upon the sheriffs by his father).

 

"The final years of Henry's reign were consumed in war with France and difficulties ensuring the succession. The French King Louis VI began consolidating his kingdom and attacked Normandy unsuccessfully on three separate occasions. The succession became a concern upon the 1120 death of his son, William: Henry's marriage to Adelaide was fruitless, leaving his daughter Matilda as the only surviving legitimate heir. She was recalled to Henry's court in 1125 after the death of her husband, Emperor Henry V of Germany. Henry forced his Barons to swear an oath of allegiance to Matilda in 1127, after he arranged her marriage to the sixteen-year-old Geoffrey of Anjou to cement an Angevin alliance on the continent. The marriage, unpopular with the Norman Barons, produced a male heir in 1133, which prompted yet another reluctant oath of loyalty from the aggravated Barons.

 

"In the summer of 1135, Geoffrey demanded custody of certain key Norman castles as a show of good will from Henry; Henry refused and the pair entered into war. Henry's life ended in this sorry state of affairs -war with his son-in-law and rebellion on the horizon - in December 1135."

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Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon24.html

 

 

Notes for Matilda of Scotland:

 

"Matilda of Scotland was the daughter of Malcolm II of Scotland andhis Anglo-Saxon queen Margaret. Her marriage to Henry I of England in1100 thus brought to Henry, descendant of the conquering Normans, adirect and politically desirable link to Matilda's ancestor Alfred theGreat. Her life makes clear that Matilda had outstanding talents. Shewas educated in the exclusive convents of Romsey and Wilton, agrounding which enabled her to further the literate court culture ofthe twelfth century, and under her control was a substantial demesnethat allowed her to exercise both lay and ecclesiastical patronage. Inthe matter of ruling, she was an active partner in administeringHenry's cross-channel realm, served as a member of his curia regis,and on occasion acted with what amounted to vice-regal authority inEngland while Henry was in Normandy. Chroniclers of the twelfth andthirteenth centuries often refer to her as Mathilda bona regina, orMatildis beatae memoriae, and for a time she was popularly regarded asa saint. She herself was skilled at manipulating those structures

 

Source:http://www.boydell.co.uk/5115994X.HTM

Henry and Matilda of Scotland had the following children:

37.

i.

EDITH MATILDA (daughter of Henry and Matilda of Scotland) was born in 1101. She died on 07 Sep 1167. She married (1) GEOFFREY on 03 Apr 1127. He was born on 24 Aug 1113 in The Royal Palace in Sutton Courtenay (Berkshire). He died on 07 Sep 1151. She married (2) HENRY on 07 Jan 1114. He was born in 1081. He died in 1125.

ii.

GEOFFREY (son of Geoffrey and Edith Matilda).

iii.

WILLIAM (son of Geoffrey and Edith Matilda).

Henry and Adeliza of Louvain had the following children:

iv.

WILLIAM ALBINI (son of Henry and Adeliza of Louvain). He died on 24 Dec 1196. He married MAUD DE ST. HILARY.

 

Notes for William Albini:

 

William was Second Earl of Arundel.

v.

REYNER ALBINI (son of Henry and Adeliza of Louvain).

vi.

HENRY ALBINI (son of Henry and Adeliza of Louvain).

vii.

GODFREY ALBINI (son of Henry and Adeliza of Louvain).

viii.

ALICE ALBINI (daughter of Henry and Adeliza of Louvain). She married COUNT D'EU.

ix.

OLIVIA ALBINI (daughter of Henry and Adeliza of Louvain).

x.

AGATHA ALBINI (daughter of Henry and Adeliza of Louvain).

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Henry and Sybil Corbet had the following child:

xi.

REGINALD FITZ ROY (son of Henry and Sybil Corbet). He married MABEL.

35.

ROBERT DE BEAUMONT (Isabel de Vermandois, Hugh Magnus, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Robert de Beaumont) was born in 1104. He died on 05 Apr 1168. He married Amice de Montfort (daughter of Ralph de Gael de Montfort) after Nov 1120.

Robert de Beaumont and Amice de Montfort had the following child:

38.

i.

ROBERT DE BEAUMONT (son of Robert de Beaumont and Amice de Montfort) was born before 1135. He died in 1190 in Durazzo, Greece. He married Petronilla de Grandmesnil (daughter of Hugh de Grandmesnil) about 1155. She died on 01 Apr 1212.

36.

WILLIAM ALBINI (William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson). He married CECELIA BIGOD.

 

Notes for William Albini:

 

William was called "primus" in the Belvoir Charters. He held le Meschin and half of Stockhorn. He acquired South Perthton in Somersetshire by marriage.

 

 

Notes for Cecelia Bigod:

 

Cecelia was heiress of Belvoir. She held Roger le Courcel's Manor ofSouth Perthton as the gift of King Henry I.

William Albini and Cecelia Bigod had the following children:

39.

i.

ROBERT ALBINI (son of William Albini and Cecelia Bigod). He died in 1205.

ii.

WILLIAM ALBINI (son of William Albini and Cecelia Bigod). He died in 1168 in This was 14 Henry II. He married MAUD ST. LIZ.

 

Notes for William Albini:

 

He inherited Belvoir from his mother. He forfeited his estates in time of Stephen, who granted them to Ranulph, Earl of Chester. He was said to be an ancestor of Barons Ros and Lady Abney-Hastings, Countess of London, who held Willesley.

iii.

RALPH ALBINI (son of William Albini and Cecelia Bigod). He died in 1191 in At the siege of Acre on the Third Crusade.. He married SYBIL DE VALOINS.

 

Notes for Ralph Albini:

 

Ralph succeeded to South Perthton. He went on the Third Crusade,which is when he died. He was an ancestor of Abney's of SouthPerthton.

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37.

EDITH MATILDA (Henry, William, Robert, Helena, Helena, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Henry, William, Robert, Richard, Richard) was born in 1101. She died on 07 Sep 1167. She married (1) GEOFFREY on 03 Apr 1127. He was born on 24 Aug 1113 in The Royal Palace in Sutton Courtenay (Berkshire). He died on 07 Sep 1151. She married (2) HENRY on 07 Jan 1114. He was born in 1081. He died in 1125.

 

Notes for Edith Matilda:

 

Edith Matilda is my ninth cousin, 24 times removed.

 

Matilda is the Latin form of Maud, and the name of the only survivinglegitimate child of King Henry I. She was born in 1101, generally itis said at Winchester, but recent research indicates that she wasactually born at the Royal Palace in Sutton Courtenay (Berkshire).

 

In something of a political coup for her father, Matilda was betrothedto the German Emperor, Henry V, when she was only eight. They weremarried on 7th January 1114. She was twelve and he was thirty-two.Unfortunately there were no children and on the Emperor's death in1125, Matilda was recalled to her father's court.

 

Matilda's only legitimate brother had been killed in the disastrousWreck of the White Ship in late 1120 and she was now her father's onlyhope for the continuation of his dynasty. The barons swore allegianceto the young Princess and promised to make her queen after herfather's death. She herself needed heirs though and in April 1127,Matilda found herself obliged to marry Prince Geoffrey of Anjou andMaine (the future Geoffrey V, Count of those Regions). He wasthirteen, she twenty-three. It is thought that the two never got on.However, despite this unhappy situation they had had three sons infour years.

 

Being absent in Anjou at the time of her father's death on 1stDecember 1135, possibly due to pregnancy, Matilda was not in much of aposition to take up the throne which had been promised her and shequickly lost out to her fast-moving cousin, Stephen. With her husband,she attempted to take Normandy. With encouragement from supporters inEngland though, it was not long before Matilda invaded her rightfulEnglish domain and so began a long-standing Civil War from the powerbase of her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, in the West Country.

 

After three years of armed struggle, she at last gained the upper handat the Battle of Lincoln, in February 1141, where King Stephen wascaptured. However, despite being declared Queen or "Lady of theEnglish" at Winchester and winning over Stephen's brother, Henry ofBlois, the powerful Bishop of Winchester, Matilda alienated thecitizens of London with her arrogant manner. She failed to secure hercoronation and the Londoners joined a renewed push from Stephen'sQueen and laid siege to the Empress in Winchester. She managed toescape to the West, but while commanding her rearguard, her brotherwas captured by the enemy.

 

Matilda was obliged to swap Stephen for Robert on 1st November 1141.Thus the King soon reimposed his Royal authority. In 1148, after thedeath of her half-brother, Matilda finally returned to Normandy,leaving her son, who, in 1154, would become Henry II, to fight on inEngland. She died at Rouen on 10th September 1169 and was buried inFontevrault Abbey, though some of her entrails may possibly have beenlater interred in her father's foundation at Reading Abbey.

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon25a.html

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Notes for Geoffrey:

 

Geoffrey V was born August 24, 1111. He would later marry EdithMatilda, Empress Matilda, the daughter and heiress of King Henry I ofEngland. Matilda is my ninth cousin, 24 times removed.

 

On August 24, 79 AD, Mount Vesuvius erupted, burying the Roman citiesof Pompeii and Herculaneum in volcanic ash. An estimated 20,000 peopledied. This was 1,034 years to the day of Geoffrey's birthday.

 

Source:http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/pompeii/

 

"Geoffrey V,, called the Handsome (French: le Bel) and Plantagenet,was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. By his marriage tothe Empress Matilda, daughter and heiress of Henry I of England,Geoffrey had a son, Henry Curtmantle, who succeeded to the Englishthrone and founded the Plantagenet dynasty to which Geoffrey gave hisnickname.

 

"Geoffrey was the elder son of Fulk V of Anjou and Eremburga of LaFlËche, heiress of Elias I of Maine. Geoffrey received his nicknamefor the yellow sprig of broom blossom (genÍt is the French name forthe genista, or broom shrub) he wore in his hat as a badge. King HenryI of England, having heard good reports on Geoffrey's talents andprowess, sent his royal legates to Anjou to negotiate a marriagebetween Geoffrey and his own daughter, Matilda. Consent was obtainedfrom both parties, and on June 10, 1128 the fifteen-year-old Geoffreywas knighted in Rouen by King Henry in preparation for the wedding.Interestingly, there was no opposition to the marriage from theChurch, despite the fact that Geoffrey's sister was the widow ofMatilda's brother (only son of King Henry) which fact had been used toannul the marriage of another of Geoffrey's sisters to the Normanpretender William Clito."

 

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_of_Anjou

Edith Matilda and Geoffrey had the following children:

i.

GEOFFREY (son of Geoffrey and Edith Matilda).

ii.

WILLIAM (son of Geoffrey and Edith Matilda).

40.

iii.

HENRY II (son of Geoffrey and Edith Matilda) was born on 05 Mar 1133 in La Mans, France. He died on 06 Jul 1189 in Chinon Castol, Anjou. He married Eleanor of Aquitaine (daughter of William) on 18 May 1152 in Bordeaux Cathedral, Gascony. She was born in 1123. She died in 1204.

 

 

Notes for Henry:

 

Henry was a German Emperor.

38.

ROBERT DE BEAUMONT (Robert de Beaumont, Isabel de Vermandois, Hugh Magnus, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Robert de Beaumont, Robert de Beaumont) was born before 1135. He died in 1190 in Durazzo, Greece. He married Petronilla de Grandmesnil (daughter of Hugh de Grandmesnil) about 1155. She died on 01 Apr 1212.

 

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Notes for Petronilla de Grandmesnil:

 

She was a great granddaughter of Hugh de Grandmesnil, a companion ofWilliam the Conquerer at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.

Robert de Beaumont and Petronilla de Grandmesnil had the following child:

41.

i.

MARGARET DE BEAUMONT (daughter of Robert de Beaumont and Petronilla de Grandmesnil) was born after 1155. She died between 12 Jan-12 Feb 1235. She married Saher de Quincy (son of Robert de Quincy and Orabella) before 1173. He was born in 1155. He died on 03 Nov 1219.

39.

ROBERT ALBINI (William Albini, William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson). He died in 1205.

 

Notes for Robert Albini:

 

Robert was Lord of Hungerton and Wiwell. He sued William deHerrington for a tenement in Bollington in 1 John (1200). He acquiredan interest at Stoke in the Manor of Hope in the time of King John.

Robert Albini had the following child:

42.

i.

WILLIAM ALBINI OF ABNEY (son of Robert Albini). He married AGNES DE MEYSAM.

Generation 18

40.

HENRY II (William, William, Henry, William, Robert, Helena, Helena, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Geoffrey) was born on 05 Mar 1133 in La Mans, France. He died on 06 Jul 1189 in Chinon Castol, Anjou. He married Eleanor of Aquitaine (daughter of William) on 18 May 1152 in Bordeaux Cathedral, Gascony. She was born in 1123. She died in 1204.

 

Notes for Henry II:

 

King Henry II, though born in France, became King of England. He came from the Plantagenet, which was the family name of a line of kings that ruled England from 1154 to 1399. These kings descended from the marriage of Matilda, daughter of King Henry I, to Geoffrey, count of Anjou, France. Geoffrey was nicknamed "Plantagenet," because he wore a sprig of the broom (genet) plant in his cap.

 

Numerous historians also call these kings "Angevins," meaning from Anjou. The Plantagenet dynasty began with Henry II, son of Matilda and Geoffrey. Henry is my 9th cousin, 24 times removed, as well as the 14th great grandfather of Englishman Edward Southworth, the first husband of Alice Carpenter, my seven times great grandmother. My descending from her is through her second husband, Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford, a Mayflower passenger which came to America in 1620.

 

Henry II is a pivital point in tying together two ancient ancestries related to our families. He is the 10th great grandson of Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Earle of the Uplands of Norway (an eighth century Viking) and Henry is the 35th great grandson of Godwulf. Godwulf is the 65th great grandfather of my Westmoreland grandchildren, though he is not directly related to me, but through their father, Steve O. Westmoreland. Godwulf is the earliest ancestor to whom any of our modern-day relatives can claim relationship.

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Godwulf's descendants travel down through the family line of my son-in-law, Steven O. Westmoreland. Godwulf's birth occurred just months following the event of Mount Vesuvius erupting on August 24, 79 AD, burying the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in volcanic ash. An estimated 20,000 people died.

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Vesuvius

 

Henry II was the first King of England to come from the Plantagenet family. He reigned from 1154 until his death in 1189. He became known as the founder of the English system of common law, including introducing the use of juries and other legal procedures we consider common today.

 

Henry II, first of the Angevin kings, was one of the most effective of all England's monarchs. He came to the throne amid the anarchy of Stephen's reign and promptly collared his errant barons. He refined Norman government and created a capable, self-standing bureaucracy. His energy was equaled only by his ambition and intelligence. Henry survived wars, rebellion, and controversy to successfully rule one of the Middle Ages' most powerful kingdoms.

 

Now for a little discourse on law:

 

"Common law is a body of rulings made by judges on the basis of community customs and previous court decisions. It forms an essential part of the legal system of many English-speaking countries, including the United States and Canada. Common law covers such matters as contracts, ownership of property, and the payment of claims for personal injury.

 

"Early in England's history, judges decided cases according to the way they interpreted the beliefs and unwritten laws of the community. If another judge had ruled in an earlier, similar case, that judge's decision was often used as a precedent (guide). After many judges decided the same question in a similar way, the ruling became law.

 

"Common law is often contrasted with civil law, a body of rules passed by a legislature. Under civil law, a judge decides a case by following written rules, rather than previous court decisions. Common law also differs from equity, a set of standards developed to allow greater flexibility in court decisions. During the late Middle Ages, England created courts of equity to decide cases that courts of common law might treat too strictly. These courts decided cases by broad principles of justice and fairness, rather than by the rigid standards of common law. The monarch's chancellor presided over a court of equity called the court of chancery.

 

"The legal system of the United States has developed from English common law and equity. Only one U.S. state, Louisiana, modeled its legal system on civil law. Louisiana used the civil law of France, called the Code Napoleon. During the late 1800's, many state scombined their courts of common law and courts of equity. One group of judges administers the combined courts. In Canada, similarly, only the province of Quebec based its legal system on French law. "

 

Contributor: David M. O'Brien, Ph.D., Professor. of Government, University. of Virginia, World Book Encyclopedia, 1998.

 

The marriage of Henry II to Eleanor of Aquitaine made him Duke of Aquitaine at the time. He became King when King Stephen died. He not only ruled over most of France, but claimed Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. It was later that his two sons rebelled against him, and each in his own time became King of England.

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Henry II came into conflict with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, over Henry's attempts to curb the independence of the church. In 1170, four of Henry's knights, believing they were acting on the King's orders, murdered Becket in his cathedral.

 

From Sir Winston Churchill Kt, 1675: "Henry II Plantagenet, the very first of that name and race, and the very greatest King that England ever knew, but withal the most unfortunate . . . his death being imputed to those only to whom himself had given life, his ungracioussons. . ."

 

Source:http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon26.html

 

Though close in time, Henry I, son of William the Conqueror, is not the father of Henry II. Rather Henry I is the grandfather of Henry II.

 

"The history of Windsor Castle begins in the year 1070, when William the Conqueror built the original wooden structure located in what is now the inner most point of the castle. William chose the site for its superior military advantages; namely, that attackers would have to battle uphill in order to reach and overtake the castle. Although none of original wooden structure built by William remains in the WindsorCastle of today, the modern Windsor Castle still occupies the same ground. However, King Henry II was the first monarch to transform the wooden fortress to a stronghold of stone, adding a stonewall which stood tall around Windsor Castle England. Parts of this wall can still be seen today."

 

Source:http://www.destination360.com/europe/uk/windsor-castle.php

 

 

Notes for Eleanor of Aquitaine:

 

Eleanor of Aquitaine, pronounced AK wih tayn (1122-1204), was the wifeof King Louis VII of France and later of King Henry II of England.She was also the mother of two English kings, Richard the Lion-Heartedand John. Her control of Aquitaine, then a vast independent statenext to France, made her a central figure in the struggle for powerbetween France and England.

 

Eleanor was the daughter of William X, Duke of Aquitaine. In 1137,when Eleanor was 15 years old, she inherited Aquitaine. Her land cameunder French control when she married Louis VII later that year.Eleanor and Louis had two daughters. But the lack of a male heircontributed to unhappiness in their marriage, and they agreed to adivorce in 1152.

 

Within months, Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet, who became KingHenry II of England in 1154. Later, Eleanor and Henry lost affectionfor each other, and she supported a revolt against him in 1173. Therevolt failed and Henry imprisoned Eleanor. Eleanor was freed in1189, after Henry died and Richard became king. Eleanor greatlyinfluenced both Richard and John during their reigns.

 

Contributor: Marion Meade, M.S., Author, Eleanor of Aquitaine. 1986 CDVersion of the World Book Encyclopedia

Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine had the following children:

i.

HENRY (son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine).

ii.

MATILDA (daughter of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine).

iii.

GEOFFREY (son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine).

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iv.

ELEANOR (daughter of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine).

v.

JOAN (daughter of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine).

vi.

RICHARD (son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine) was born on 08 Sep 1157 in Oxford, England, Beaumont Palace. He died on 06 Apr 1199 in Chalus Aquitaine, England, from battle wounds. He married Berengaria (daughter of Sancho and Sancha) on 12 May 1191 in Limassol, Cyprus. She was born between 1165-1170. She died on 23 Dec 1230.

 

Notes for Richard:

 

Richard is my 10th cousin, 23 times removed, being related through the Abney family line. Richard led the third one of the Crusades and ruled in England from 1189, succeeding his father on the English throne, Henry II, at his 1189 death.

 

"He is known in history as Richard the Lion-Hearted, or Richard Coeurde Lion. He was a son of Henry II, the first king of the Plantagenet dynasty, and Eleanor of Aquitaine. After Richard became king, he joined Philip II of France in a crusade to the Holy Land, which then was under the control of the Muslims. Richard captured Acre (now called Akko) but soon realized that Jerusalem could not be recovered.

 

"During the crusade, Richard aroused the hatred of Leopold V, Duke ofAustria. In 1192, while Richard was on his journey home, Leopold seized him. Leopold kept Richard in a castle as a prisoner of theHoly Roman emperor, Henry VI. Richard was later taken to Henry, whore leased him in 1194 after a ransom was paid.

 

"Even though Richard was born in Oxford, England, he spent nearly all of his life in France. In 1183, Richard's older brother died.However, their father, Henry II, refused to recognize Richard as heir to the throne of England. Richard rebelled against his father several times.

 

"Richard finally defeated his father, Henry II, in 1189. As aPlantagenet, Richard had inherited not only England, but also most of northern and western France. While Richard was in prison, Philip I Iseized some of the Plantagenet lands in France. Richard spent the rest of his reign fighting to get the lands back. He left efficient ministers in charge of England while he concentrated on the war withPhilip. In 1199, Richard was killed during the siege of a castle, and his younger brother John became king. "

 

Source: John Gillingham, Senior Lecturer, London School of Economics and Political Science, Univ. of London, World Book Encyclopedia 1998.

 

Richard spent but six months of his ten-year reign in England. He acted upon a promise to his father to join the Third Crusade and departed for the Holy Land in 1190 (accompanied by his partner-rivalPhilip II of France). In 1191, he conquered Cyprus en route toJerusalem and performed admirably against Saladin, nearly taking the holy city twice. Philip II, in the meantime, returned to France and schemed with Richard's brother John. The Crusade failed in its primary objective of liberating the Holy Land from Moslem Turks, but did have a positive result - easier access to the region for Christian pilgrims through a truce with Saladin. Richard received word of John's treachery and decided to

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return home; he was captured by Leopold V ofAustria and imprisoned by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI.

 

The administrative machinery of Henry II insured the continuance of royal authority, as Richard was unable to return to his realm until 1194.Upon his return, he crushed a coup attempt by John and regained lands lost to Philip II during the German captivity. Richard's war withPhilip continued sporadically until the French were finally defeated near Gisors in 1198.

 

Richard died April 6, 1199, from a wound received in a skirmish at the castle of Chalus in the Limousin. Near his death, Richard finally reconciled his position with his late father, as evidenced by SirRichard Baker in A Chronicle of the Kings of England: "The remorse for his undutifulness towards his father, was living in him till he died; for at his death he remembered it with bewailing, and desired to be buried as near him as might be, perhaps as thinking they should meet the sooner, that he might ask him forgiveness in another world."Richard's prowess and courage in battle earned him the nickname CoeurDe Lion ("heart of the lion"), but the training of his mother's courtis revealed in a verse Richard composed during his German captivity:"No one will tell me the cause of my sorrow. Why they have made me aprisoner here? Wherefore with dolour I now make my moan; Friends hadI many but help have I none. Shameful it is that they leave me to ransom, To languish here two winters long."

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon27.html 

43.

vii.

JOHN (son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine) was born on 24 Dec 1167 in Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England. He died on 18 Oct 1216 in Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire. He married (1) ISABELLA OF ANGOULEME (daughter of Aymer Taillefer) on 24 Aug 1200 in Bordeaux Cathedral. She was born in 1188. She died on 04 Jun 1246. He married ISABELLA.

41.

MARGARET DE BEAUMONT (Robert de Beaumont, Robert de Beaumont, Isabel de Vermandois, Hugh Magnus, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Robert de Beaumont, Robert de Beaumont, Robert de Beaumont) was born after 1155. She died between 12 Jan-12 Feb 1235. She married Saher de Quincy (son of Robert de Quincy and Orabella) before 1173. He was born in 1155. He died on 03 Nov 1219.

Margaret de Beaumont and Saher de Quincy had the following child:

44.

i.

ROGER DE QUINCY (son of Saher de Quincy and Margaret de Beaumont). He died on 25 Apr 1264. He married HELEN OF GALLOWAY.

42.

WILLIAM ALBINI OF ABNEY (Robert Albini, William Albini, William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson). He married AGNES DE MEYSAM.

 

Notes for William Albini of Abney:

 

William was Lord of Hungerton and Wiwell. He joined with JohnFitzherbert for 4 carcauts on land in Norbury and Rossington in 4 John(1203). He was granted a culture of land by John

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Fitzherbert in 34henry III (1350).

William Albini of Abney and Agnes de Meysam had the following child:

45.

i.

ROBERT ALBINI (son of William Albini of Abney and Agnes de Meysam) was born in 1216. He died in 1286. He married Eustacia de Fancourt (daughter of Gerald de Fancourt) in 1238.

Generation 19

43.

JOHN (Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 24 Dec 1167 in Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England. He died on 18 Oct 1216 in Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire. He married (1) ISABELLA OF ANGOULEME (daughter of Aymer Taillefer) on 24 Aug 1200 in Bordeaux Cathedral. She was born in 1188. She died on 04 Jun 1246. He married ISABELLA.

 

Notes for John:

 

John, known as John Lackland, is remembered as one of England's worst kings. Perhaps the most historically significant event occurring out of King John's rein was his issuance of the Magna Carta. It occurred in spite of him ... not because of him trying to advance some good. John is my 10th cousin, 23 times removed. He is also the 13th great grandfather of Edward Southworth, the first husband of my seven times great grandmother, Alice Carpenter. He is my 21st step great grandfather.

 

It is of Christian interest to me that King John of Lackland appointed Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury on May 15, 1213. Stephen Langton (born about 1150 ? died July 9, 1228) is believed to be the first person to divide the Bible into defined chapters. While Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro is also known to come up with a systematic division of the Bible (between 1244 and 1248), it is Langton's arrangement of books and chapters that remains in use today. So, though our family actually did not give chapter divisions for today's Bible, it was one of our family who appointed the man who did so, and it is a pleasure to claim that connection to an act of spiritual significance.

 

John was born on Christmas Eve 1167. His parents drifted apart after his birth; his youth was divided between his eldest brother Henry's house, where he learned the art of knighthood, and the house of his father's justiciar, Ranulf Glanvil, where he learned the business of government. As the fourth child, inherited lands were not available to him, giving rise to his nickname, Lackland. His first marriage lasted but ten years and was fruitless, but his second wife, Isabella of Angouleme, bore him two sons and three daughters. He also had an illegitimate daughter, Joan, who married Llywelyn the Great, Ruler of All Wales, from which the Tudor line of monarchs was descended. The survival of the English government during John's reign is a testament to the reforms of his father, as John taxed the system socially, economically, and judicially.

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon28.html

 

John was unpredictable and often cruel, but he showed administrative ability. He improved methods of tax collection and financial record keeping, and strengthened the courts of law, which his father had greatly enhanced. He was the youngest son of King Henry II. In 1177,Henry made John Lord of Ireland. In 1199, John succeeded his brotherRichard the Lion-Hearted as king of England, and, in France, as Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou. John's nephewArthur claimed the right to succeed Richard. John

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quarreled over hisFrench territories with Arthur and King Philip II of France. Philip declared a war against England that began in 1202. The war was fought off and on throughout the rest of John's reign. John's mismanagement--and rumors he murdered Arthur--angered French barons who had been loyal to John and led to the loss of most English holdings in France.

 

John disagreed with Pope Innocent III over who should become archbishop of Canterbury. In 1208, the pope placed England under an interdict, which banned church services throughout the country. John was excommunicated the next year. His dictatorial behavior stirred discontent among the English barons. John feared his barons would revolt. To avoid this, he settled his argument with the pope in 1213.The pope then supported John, in return for liberties granted the church. But many English barons and some clergy revolted anyway when the king's plans to reconquer the lost territories in France failed.On June, 15, 1215, John grudgingly approved the settlement that became known as Magna Carta. It placed the king under English law and checked his power.

 

The Magna Carta (pronounced MAG nuh KAHR tuh) is a document that marked a decisive step forward in the development of constitutional government and legal ideas in England. In later centuries, much of the rest of the world also benefited from it because many countries followed English models in creating their own governments. The countries include the United States and Canada. The Latin words Magna Carta mean Great Charter.

 

English barons forced King John to approve the charter in June 1215 atRunnymede, southwest of London. In the charter, the king granted many rights to the English aristocracy. The ordinary English people gained little. But many years later, Magna Carta became a model for those who demanded democratic government and individual rights for all. Inits own time, the greatest value of Magna Carta was that it limited royal power and made it clear that even the king had to obey the law.Of course, this dramatic change in English governance benefited only the landed aristocracy (the Barons) and not really the common man.The common man would have to wait till later develops in governing history to see more of the freedoms that we expect to experience in everyday life today.

 

Reasons for the charter. From the Norman invasion of England in 1066through the 1100's, most of the kings who ruled England were able and strong. They usually tried to govern justly and respected feudal law.Under feudal law, nobles called barons received land in return for military and other services to the king. Law and custom established the barons' duties and what was expected of the king. But there was no actual control over the king's power. When John became king in1199, he exercised his power even more forcefully than earlier kings.He demanded more military service than they did. He sold royal positions to the highest bidders. He demanded larger amounts of money without consulting the barons, which was contrary to feudal custom. He decided cases according to his wishes, and people who lost cases in his court had to pay crushing penalties.

 

English barons and church leaders began to express dissatisfaction with John's rule early in his reign. Their unhappiness grew when he lost most of the English possessions in France in warfare lasting from1202 to 1206. In 1213, a group met at St. Albans, near London, and drew up a list of demands based in part on the coronation charter ofHenry I, who had been king from 1100 to 1135. After John lost an important battle against France at Bouvines (in what is now western Belgium) in 1214, civil war broke out in England. John saw that he could not defeat his opponents' army, and so he agreed to a set of articles on June 15, 1215. Four days later, the articles were engrossed (written out in legal form) as a royal charter. Copies of the charter were distributed throughout the kingdom.

 

Promises in the charter. Magna Carta contained 63 articles, most of which pledged the king to uphold feudal customs. These articles chiefly benefited the barons and other landholders. One article granted the church freedom from royal interference. A few articles

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guaranteed rights to residents of towns. Ordinary free people and peasants were hardly mentioned in the charter, even though they made up by far the largest part of England's population.

 

Some articles that in 1215 applied only to feudal landholders later became important to all the people. For example, the charter stated that the king could make no special demands for money without the consent of the barons. Later, this provision was used to support the argument that no tax should be raised without the consent of Parliament.

 

Still other articles became foundations for modern justice. One article says that the king will not sell, deny, or delay justice.Another says that no freeman shall be imprisoned, deprived of property, exiled, or destroyed, except by the lawful judgment of his peers (equals) or by the law of the land. The idea of due process of law, including trial by jury, developed from these articles. InJohn's time, however, there was no such thing as trial by jury in criminal cases.

 

The charter tried to make the king keep his promises by establishing a council of barons. If the king violated the charter and ignored warnings of the council, it could raise an army to force the king to live by the charter's provisions. But these measures were unsuccessful.

 

The charter issuance in 1215 of the Magna Carta did not end the struggle between King John and the barons. Neither side intended to abide by the charter completely. Pope Innocent III canceled the charter at the king's request, and war broke out immediately. After King John's death in 1216, however, his son Henry III and later English kings promised to abide by the charter, actually issuing several copies over the years. The most famous of these promises was that of Edward I in 1297. Through these promises, the charter came to be recognized as part of the fundamental law of England. This was chiefly the version issued by King John's grandson, Edward I

 

Much later, in the 1600's, members of parliament used Magna Carta to rally support in their struggle against the strong rule of the Stuart kings. These lawmakers came to view the charter as a constitutional check on royal power. They cited it as a legal support for the argument that there could be no laws or taxation without the consent of Parliament. These members of Parliament used the charter to demand guarantees of trial by jury, safeguards against unfair imprisonment, and other rights.

 

In the 1700's, Sir William Blackstone, a famous lawyer, set down these ideals as legal rights of the people in his famous Commentaries on theLaws of England. Also in the 1700's, colonists carried these English ideals on legal and political rights to America. The ideals eventually became part of the framework of the Constitution of the United States.

 

Four originals of King John's 1215 charter remain. Two are in theBritish Library in London, one in Salisbury Cathedral, and one inLincoln Cathedral. For many years, the document was commonly known asMagna Charter. But in 1946, the British government officially adopted the Latin spelling, Magna Carta.

 

Sources

 

World Book Encyclopedia Contributor: Emily Zack Tabuteau, Ph.D.,Associate Professor. of History, Michigan State University.

 

Magna Carta and the Idea of Liberty. Ed. by James C. Holt. Krieger,1982. First published in 1972.

 

Swindler, William F. Magna Carta: Legend and Legacy. Bobbs, 1965.

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Contributor: Emily Zack Tabuteau, Ph.D., Associate Professor. ofHistory, Michigan State University.

 

As history turned out, King John's son and grandson, both English Kings, issued other versions of the Magna Carta with essentially the same effect. In total, the three generations of Kings issued 17 Magna Carta's, all of which are still preserved. Fifteen are in various British institutions, one is in Australia and one is in America, previously owned by the Perot Foundation of Mr. H. Ross Perot, Sr., an acquaintance of mine and a member of the church where I was an administrator for 22 years prior to retirement. The Perot Foundation sold it's copy for $23.5 million, having originally purchased it a decade earlier for $1.5 million.

 

The Angevin family feuds profoundly marked John. He and Richard clashed in 1184 following Richard's refusal to honor his father's wishes surrender Aquitane to John. The following year Henry II sent John to rule Ireland, but John alienated both the native Irish and the transplanted Anglo-Normans who emigrated to carve out new lordships for themselves; the experiment was a total failure and John returned home within six months. After Richard gained the throne in 1189, he gave John vast estates in an unsuccessful attempt to appease his younger brother. John failed to overthrow Richard's administrators during the German captivity and conspired with Philip II in another failed coup attempt. Upon Richard's release from captivity in 1194,John was forced to sue for pardon and he spent the next five years in his brother's shadow.

 

John's reign was troubled in many respects. A quarrel with the Church resulted in England being placed under an interdict in 1207, with John actually excommunicated two years later. The dispute centered on John's stubborn refusal to install the papal candidate, Stephen Langdon, as Archbishop of Canterbury; the issue was not resolved untilJohn surrendered to the wishes of Pope Innocent III and paid tribute for England as the Pope's vassal.

 

John proved extremely unpopular with his subjects. In addition to theIrish debacle, he inflamed his French vassals by orchestrating the murder of his popular nephew, Arthur of Brittany. By spring 1205, he lost the last of his French possessions and returned to England. The final ten years of his reign were occupied with failed attempts to regain these territories. After levying a number of new taxes upon the barons to pay for his dismal campaigns, the discontented barons revolted, capturing London in May 1215. At Runnymede in the following June, John succumbed to pressure from the barons, the Church, and the English people at-large, and signed the Magna Carta. The document, a declaration of feudal rights, stressed three points. First, the Church was free to make ecclesiastic appointments. Second, larger-than-normal amounts of money could only be collected with the consent of the king's feudal tenants. Third, no freeman was to be punished except within the context of common law. Magna Carta, although a testament to John's complete failure as monarch, was the forerunner of modern constitutions. John only signed the document as a means of buying time and his hesitance to implement its principles compelled the nobility to seek French assistance. The barons offered the throne to PhilipII's son, Louis. John died in the midst of invasion from the French in the South and rebellion from his barons in the North.

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon28.html

 

As reader will see later in this paper, John's son and grandson both issued various versions of the Magna Carta several times during therein of each to reaffirm its initiatives. We know of a total of 17 of them that survive today, 15 of which remain in English hands, one in Australia and one was owned by the Perot Foundation of Dallas, Texas, but has been sold. Mr. Ross Perot, the originator of the Perot Foundation, gave me a personal copy of this Magna Carta, and it is framed for my enjoyment and display. It has now been passed only to my eldest son, Taylor Marcus Sharpe.

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John and Isabella of Angouleme had the following children:

i.

RICHARD (son of John and Isabella of Angouleme).

ii.

JOAN (daughter of John and Isabella of Angouleme).

iii.

ISABELLA (daughter of John and Isabella of Angouleme).

iv.

ELEANOR (daughter of John and Isabella of Angouleme).

46.

v.

HENRY III (son of John and Isabella of Angouleme) was born on 01 Oct 1207 in Winchester Castle. He died on 16 Nov 1272 in Palace of Westminister. He married Eleanor of Provence (daughter of Raymond Berenger) on 14 Jan 1236 in Cantebury Cathedral, Kent, England. She was born in 1217. She died on 24 Jun 1291 in Amesbury (or possibly June 25).

44.

ROGER DE QUINCY (Margaret de Beaumont, Robert de Beaumont, Robert de Beaumont, Isabel de Vermandois, Hugh Magnus, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Saher de Quincy, Robert de Quincy). He died on 25 Apr 1264. He married HELEN OF GALLOWAY.

Roger de Quincy and Helen of Galloway had the following child:

47.

i.

ELENA DE QUINCY (daughter of Roger de Quincy and Helen of Galloway). She died about 20 Aug 1296. She married ALAN LA ZOUCHE. He died between 1260-1270.

45.

ROBERT ALBINI (William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini, William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson) was born in 1216. He died in 1286. He married Eustacia de Fancourt (daughter of Gerald de Fancourt) in 1238.

 

Notes for Robert Albini:

 

Robert was Lord of Hungerton and Wiwell.

Robert Albini and Eustacia de Fancourt had the following child:

48.

i.

WILLIAM ALBINI OF ABNEY (son of Robert Albini and Eustacia de Fancourt).

Generation 20

46.

HENRY III (John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 01 Oct 1207 in Winchester Castle. He died on 16 Nov 1272 in Palace of Westminister. He married Eleanor of Provence (daughter of Raymond Berenger) on 14 Jan 1236 in Cantebury Cathedral, Kent, England. She was born in 1217. She died on 24 Jun 1291 in Amesbury (or possibly June 25).

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Notes for Henry III:

 

English King Henry III (reigned 1216-1272), King John's son, was only nine when he became King. By 1227, when he assumed power from his regent, order had been restored, based on his acceptance of Magna Carta. However, the King's failed campaigns in France (1230 and1242), his choice of friends and advisers, together with the cost of his scheme to make one of his younger sons King of Sicily and help the Pope against the Holy Roman Emperor, led to further disputes with the barons and united opposition in Church and State. Although Henry was extravagant and his tax demands were resented, the King's accounts show a list of many charitable donations and payments for building works (including the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey which began in 1245).

 

Henry is my 11th cousin, 22 times removed on my Mother's side of the family In additonal, he is the 12th great grandfather of Edward Southworth, the first husband of Alice Carpenter, my seven times great grandmother, who became the wife of Gov. William Bradford, each for a second marriage, after each had been widowed.

 

The Provisions of Oxford (1258) and the Provisions of Westminster(1259) were attempts by the nobles to define common law in the spirit of Magna Carta, control appointments and set up an aristocratic council. Henry tried to defeat them by obtaining papal absolution from his oaths, and enlisting King Louis XI's help. Henry renounced the Provisions in 1262, and war broke out. The barons, under their leader, Simon de Montfort, were initially successful and even captured Henry. However, Henry escaped, joined forces with the lords of the Marches (on the Welsh border), and Henry finally defeated and killed de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in 1265. Royal authority was restored by the Statute of Marlborough (1267), in which the King also promised to uphold Magna Carta and some of the Provisions of Westminster.

 

(Source: http://www.royal.gov.uk/history/index.htm)

 

Henry III, the first monarch to be crowned in his minority, inherited the throne at age nine. His reign began immersed in the rebellion created by his father, King John. London and most of the southeast were in the hands of the French Dauphin Louis and the northern regions were under the control of rebellious barons - only the midlands and southwest were loyal to the boy king. The barons, however, rallied under Henry's first regent, William the Marshall, and expelled theFrench Dauphin in 1217. William the Marshall governed until his death in 1219; Hugh de Burgh, the last of the justiciars to rule with the power of a king, governed until Henry came to the throne in earnest at age twenty-five.

 

A variety of factors coalesced in Henry's reign to plant the first seeds of English nationalism. Throughout his minority, the barons held firm to the ideal of written restrictions on royal authority and reissued Magna Carta several times. The nobility wished to bind the king to same feudal laws under which they were held. The emerging class of free men also demanded the same protection from the king's excessive control. Barons, nobility, and free men began viewing England as a community rather than a mere aggregation of independent manors, villages, and outlying principalities. In addition to there strictions outlined in Magna Carta, the barons asked to be consulted in matters of state and called together as a Great Council. Viewing themselves as the natural counselors of the king, they sought control over the machinery of government, particularly in the appointment of chief government positions. The Exchequer and the Chancery were separated from the rest of the government, to decrease the king's chances of ruling irresponsibly.

 

Nationalism, such as it was at this early stage, manifested in the form of opposition to Henry's actions. He infuriated the barons by granting favors and appointments to foreigners rather than the English nobility. Peter des Roches, the Bishop of Winchester and Henry's prime educator, introduced a number of Frenchmen from Poitou into the government; many

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Italians entered into English society through Henry's close ties to the papacy. His reign coincided with an expansion of papal power. Then the Church became, in effect, a massive European monarchy and the Church became as creative as it was excessive in extorting money from England. England was expected to assume a large portion of financing the myriad officials employed throughout Christendom as well as providing employment and parishes for Italians living abroad. Henry's acquiescence to the demands of Rome initiated a backlash of protest from his subjects: laymen were denied opportunity to be nominated for vacant ecclesiastical offices and clergymen lost any chance of advancement.

 

Matters came to a head in 1258. Henry levied extortionate taxes to pay for debts incurred through war with Wales, failed campaigns in France, and an extensive program of ecclesiastical building. Inept diplomacy and military defeat led Henry to sell his hereditary claims to all the Angevin possessions in France, except Gascony. When he assumed the considerable debts of the papacy in its fruitless war with Sicily, his barons demanded sweeping reforms and the king was in no position to offer resistance. Henry was forced to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, a document placing the barons in virtual control of the realm. A council of fifteen men, comprised of both the king's supporters and detractors, effected a situation whereby Henry could nothing, without the council's knowledge and consent. The magnates handled every level of government with great unity initially but gradually succumbed to petty bickering; the Provisions of Oxfordre mained in force for only years. Henry reasserted his authority and denied the Provisions, resulting in the outbreak of civil war in 1264.Edward, Henry's eldest son, led the king's forces with the opposition commanded by Simon de Montfort, Henry's brother-in-law. At the Battle of Lewes, in Sussex, de Montfort defeated Edward and captured both king and son - and found himself in control of the government.

 

Simon de Montfort held absolute power after subduing Henry, but was a champion of reform. The nobility supported him, because of his royalties and belief in the Provisions of Oxford. De Montfort, with two close associates, selected a council of nine (whose function was similar to the earlier council of fifteen), and ruled in the king's name. De Montfort recognized the need to gain the backing of smaller landowners and prosperous townsfolk: in 1264, he summoned knights from each shire in addition to the normal high churchmen and nobility to a nearly pre-Parliament, and in 1265 invited burgesses from selected towns. Although Parliament as an institution was yet to be formalized, the latter session was a precursor to both the elements of Parliament: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

 

Later in 1265, de Montfort lost the support of one of the most powerful barons, the Earl of Gloucester, and Edward also managed to escape. The two gathered an army and defeated de Montfort at the Battle of Evasham. Worcestershire de Montfort was slain and Henry was released; Henry resumed control of the throne but, for the remainder of his reign, Edward exercised the real power of the throne in his father's stead. The old king, after a long reign of fifty-six years, died in 1272. Although a failure as a politician and soldier, his reign was significant for defining the English monarchical position until the end of the fifteenth century: kingship limited by law.

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon29.html

 

 

Notes for Eleanor of Provence:

 

The daughter of Raymond Berengar, count of Provence, Eleanor wasmarried to Henry in 1236. She was a vigorous and incisive woman andhad much influence on her husband, as did her unpopular relatives andother foreign courtiers who followed her to England. During theascendancy of Simon de Montfort in 1264?65, Eleanor raised mercenariesin France for

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her husband?s cause. She was dispatched to a convent in1286 but was sometimes consulted by her son, Edward I.

 

Source:http://www.bartleby.com/65/el/EleanorP.html

Henry III and Eleanor of Provence had the following children:

i.

MARGRET (daughter of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence).

ii.

BEATRICE (daughter of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence).

iii.

EDMUND (son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence).

iv.

RICHARD (son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence).

v.

JOHN (son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence).

vi.

KATHERINE (daughter of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence).

vii.

WILLIAM (son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence).

viii.

HENRY (son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence).

49.

ix.

EDWARD I (son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence) was born on 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster. He died on 07 Jul 1307 in Burch-on-Sands, Cumberland, near Carlisle. He married (1) ELEANOR OF CASTILE (daughter of Ferdinand) on 18 Oct 1254 in Las Huelgas, Castile. She was born in 1244. She died on 28 Nov 1290 in Grantham, England. He married (2) MARGUERITE OF FRANCE (daughter of Phillip) on 20 Sep 1299. She died in 1317.

47.

ELENA DE QUINCY (Roger de Quincy, Margaret de Beaumont, Robert de Beaumont, Robert de Beaumont, Isabel de Vermandois, Hugh Magnus, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Roger de Quincy, Saher de Quincy, Robert de Quincy). She died about 20 Aug 1296. She married ALAN LA ZOUCHE. He died between 1260-1270.

 

 

Notes for Alan La Zouche:

 

Alan was my twelth cousin, twenty-one times removed.

Elena de Quincy and Alan La Zouche had the following child:

i.

ROGER LA ZOUCHE (son of Alan La Zouche and Elena de Quincy). He died in 1285. He married ELA LONGESPEE.

48.

WILLIAM ALBINI OF ABNEY (Robert Albini, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini, William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson).

 

Notes for William Albini of Abney:

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He succeeded his father in 1285

William Albini of Abney had the following child:

50.

i.

WILLIAM ABNEY (son of William Albini of Abney).

Generation 21

49.

EDWARD I (Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster. He died on 07 Jul 1307 in Burch-on-Sands, Cumberland, near Carlisle. He married (1) ELEANOR OF CASTILE (daughter of Ferdinand) on 18 Oct 1254 in Las Huelgas, Castile. She was born in 1244. She died on 28 Nov 1290 in Grantham, England. He married (2) MARGUERITE OF FRANCE (daughter of Phillip) on 20 Sep 1299. She died in 1317.

 

Notes for Edward I:

 

Edward I became king of England in 1272. As king, he conquered Wales and tried to gain control of Scotland. Edward belonged to the Plantagenet family of English rulers. He's my 13th cousin, 20 times removed through my Mother's family line. He also is, in my father's family line, the 11th great grandfather of the 1st husband of Alice Carpenter, my seven times great grandmother.

 

In addition, King Edward I is the 24th great grandfather of our son-in-law, Steven O. Westmoreland, meaning that our daughter married well into Royalty! Steve and Tiffany are thirty-fourth cousins, four times remove

 

Edward I was born in Westminster (now part of London). He succeeded his father, Henry III, as king. Edward fought two wars against the Welsh, one in 1277 and another in 1282 and 1283. He conquered Wales in the second war. In 1301, Edward gave the title Prince of Wales to his son, who later became Edward II. Since then, it has be come customary for English monarchs to give the title to their oldest son.

 

Edward was called "Longshanks" due to his great height. He was perhaps the most successful of the medieval monarchs. The first twenty years of his reign marked a high point of cooperation between crown and community. In these years, Edward made great strides in reforming government, consolidating territory, and defining foreign policy. He possessed the strength his father lacked and reasserted royal prerogative.

 

Edward fathered many children as well: sixteen by Eleanor of Castille before her death in 1290, and three more by Margaret. In addition, there supposedly is an illegitimate child as well.

 

Edward held to the concept of community, and although at time was scrupulously aggressive, ruled with the general welfare of his subjects in mind. He perceived the crown as judge of the proper course of action for the realm and its chief legislator; royal authority was granted by law and should be fully utilized for the public good, but that same law also granted protection to the king's subjects. A king should rule with the advice and consent of those whose rights were in question. The level of interaction between king and subject allowed Edward considerable leeway in achieving his goals.

 

Edward I added to the bureaucracy initiated by Henry II to increase his effectiveness as

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sovereign. He expanded the administration into four principal parts: the Chancery, the Exchequer, the Household, and the Council. The Chancery researched and created legal documents while the Exchequer received and issued money, scrutinized the accounts of local officials, and kept financial records. These two departments operated within the king's authority, but independently from his personal rule, prompting Edward to follow the practice of earlier kings in developing the Household, a mobile court of clerks and advisers that traveled with the king. The King's Council was the most vital segment of the four. It consisted of his principal ministers, trusted judges and clerks, a select group of magnates, who also followed the king. The Council dealt with matters of great importance to the realm and acted as a court for cases of national importance.

 

Edward's forays into the refinement of law and justice had important consequences in decreasing feudal practice. The Statute of Gloucester(1278) curbed expansion of large private holdings and established the principle that all private franchises were delegated by, and subordinate to, the crown. Royal jurisdiction became supreme: the Exchequer developed a court to hear financial disputes, the Court of Common Pleas arose to hear property disputes, and the Court of the King's Bench addressed criminal cases in which the king had a vested interest. Other statutes prohibited vassals from giving their lands to the church, encouraged primogeniture, and established the king as the sole person who could make a man his feudal vassal. In essence, Edward set the stage for land to become an article of commerce.

 

Edward concentrated on an aggressive foreign policy. A major campaign to control Llywelyn Gruff of Wales began in 1277 and lasted until Llywelyn's death in 1282. Wales was divided into shires, English civil law was introduced, and the region was administered by appointed justices. In the manner of earlier monarchs, Edward constructed many new castles to ensure his conquest.

 

In 1301, the king's eldest son was named Prince of Wales, a title still granted to all first-born male heirs to the crown. Edward found limited success in extending English influence into Ireland: he introduced a Parliament in Dublin and increased commerce in a few coastal towns, but most of the country was controlled by independent barons or Celtic tribal chieftains. He retained English holdings in France through diplomacy, but was drawn into war by the incursions of Philip IV in Gascony. He negotiated a peace with France in 1303 and retained those areas England held before the war.

 

In 1292, Edward chose John de Balliol as ruler of Scotland from among several men who claimed the Scottish throne. Edward demanded that Balliol pay homage to him. But this demand humiliated the Scottish people, causing them to revolt. In 1296, Balliol joined the rebel forces, but Edward forced him to surrender. Edward then took to England the Stone of Scone, the stone upon which Scottish kings had been given royal power for hundreds of years. He placed the stone in Westminster Abbey, where English monarchs were crowned.

 

But the Scots continued to fight England. They were led first by William Wallace and then by Robert Bruce. Bruce was crowned king of Scotland in 1306. Edward died while on his way to subdue the new king. This story was made known in the public's mind with the 1995 Mel Gibson theater movie, "Braveheart." This movie decidedly put Edward in a bad light, as it's intent was to glorify the cause of the Scotts and their hero, William Wallace.

 

Edward's Scottish policy resulted in hostile relations between the English and the Scots for the next 250 years. It also led to an alliance between Scotland and France. As a result, England had to fight both countries at the same time. Edward's need for money to supply his army and government led him to call Parliaments more often than had any previous king. These Parliaments consisted of representatives of the nobility, the church, and common people. In return for grants of money from Parliament, Edward agreed that taxes could be levied only with Parliament's consent. He also sponsored laws on more topics than any

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previous king.

 

Magna Carta of 1215 issued by Edward's grandfather, King John, did not end the struggle between British Kings and the barons. Neither side intended to abide by the charter completely. Pope Innocent III canceled the charter after King John requested it, and war broke out immediately. After John's death in 1216, however, his son Henry III and later English kings promised to abide by the charter. The most famous of these promises was that of Edward I in 1297. Through these promises, the charter came to be recognized as part of the fundamental law of England. King Edward's edition was 37 sections or paragraphs, all of which became what is called codified law. Amazingly, ten of those paragraphs remain today in English legislation.

 

Edward I was not the first English king named Edward. People in England give numbers to their kings and queens with the same name only if the monarchs ruled after the Norman Conquest of 1066. There were three Anglo-Saxon kings named Edward who ruled England before 1066: Edward the Elder (870?-924), Edward the Martyr (963?-978?), and Edward the Confessor (1002?-1066).

 

Source Contributor: John Gillingham, Senior Lecturer, London School of Economics and Political Science, University. of London, as published in the World Book Encyclopedia, 1996. Additional source:Encyclopedia Britannica, web sitehttp://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon30.html 

 

The only copy of the Magna Carta issued by Edward that was allowed out of England belonged to H. Ross Perot, Sr., a Dallas, Texas resident and friend of this writer. Actually, it belonged to the Perot Foundation, which he created. Ross generously made a reproduction for my own records. Today, I have handed it down to my son, Taylor Marcus Sharpe.

 

There are 17 copies of the various issues of the Magna Carta which survive today. Four from the rein of King John I, eight from that of Henry III, and five from Edward I. Fifteen remain securely in England, one is in Australia and one is the in America. Mr. Perot purchased the 1297 edition of King Edward in 1984 for a reported $1.5 million. It was loaned virtually all the time of his Foundation's ownership to the United States Archives. It was displayed occasionally in Independence Hall, Philadelphia. The rest of the time mostly was on display in the National Archives Building in Washington DC, along side of the Declaration of Independence.

 

However, in 2008, the Perot Foundation auctioned the Magna Carta for $21.5 million to an anonymous buyer. The Perot Foundation is the extensive source of philanthropy directed by Mr. Perot, benefiting scores of causes. This sale funded support for more good causes. Later, it was reported that the purchase was by Mr. David Rubenstein, the managing director of the Carlyle Group. The document has been kept on display at the National Archives.

Edward I and Eleanor of Castile had the following children:

i.

JOHN PLANTAGENET (son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

ii.

HENRY PLANTAGENET (son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

iii.

JULIAN PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

iv.

JOAN PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

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v.

ALFONSO PLANTAGENET (son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

vi.

MARGARET PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

vii.

BERENGARIA PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

viii.

MARY PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

ix.

ALICE PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

x.

BEATRICE PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

xi.

BLANCHE PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile).

51.

xii.

JOAN PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile) was born in May 1271 in Akko (Acre), Hazofan, Palestine. She died on 23 Apr 1307 in Suffolk, England. She married (1) GILBERT DE CLARE (son of Richard de Clare and Margaret de Lacy) about 30 Apr 1290 in Westminster Abbey. He was born on 02 Sep 1243 in Christchurch Castle, Hampshire. He died on 07 Dec 1295 in Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire. She married (2) RALPH DE MONTHERMER in 1297. He was born in 1262. He died in 1325.

52.

xiii.

ELIZABETH PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile) was born on 07 Aug 1282. She died on 05 May 1316. She married Humphrey de Bohun on 14 Nov 1302. He was born in 1276. He died on 16 Mar 1377.

53.

xiv.

EDWARD (son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile) was born on 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarvon, Wales. He died on 21 Sep 1327 in Near Gloucester. He married ISABELLA OF FRANCE.

Edward I and Marguerite of France had the following children:

xv.

THOMAS (son of Edward I and Marguerite of France).

xvi.

ELEANOR (daughter of Edward I and Marguerite of France).

54.

xvii.

EDMUND (son of Edward I and Marguerite of France) was born in 1301. He died in 1330. He married MARGARET WAKE. She died in 1349.

50.

WILLIAM ABNEY (William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini, William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson).

 

Notes for William Abney:

 

William was a witness of a suit of Nicholas de Ingwardby in 7 EdwardII (1314).

William Abney had the following children:

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55.

i.

WILLIAM ABNEY (son of William Abney).

ii.

ROBERT ABNEY (son of William Abney).

 

Notes for Robert Abney:

 

Robert is attested in the Charter of Elias fil Helie de Thornhill toAuward fil Longnore in 2 Edward III (1329).

Generation 22

51.

JOAN PLANTAGENET (Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born in May 1271 in Akko (Acre), Hazofan, Palestine. She died on 23 Apr 1307 in Suffolk, England. She married (1) GILBERT DE CLARE (son of Richard de Clare and Margaret de Lacy) about 30 Apr 1290 in Westminster Abbey. He was born on 02 Sep 1243 in Christchurch Castle, Hampshire. He died on 07 Dec 1295 in Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire. She married (2) RALPH DE MONTHERMER in 1297. He was born in 1262. He died in 1325.

 

Notes for Joan Plantagenet:

 

Joan Plantagenet is the 14th cousin, 19 times removed to me. Theancestor in common is Gor Thorrason, the Red King, a seventh centuryNorwegian Viking. He is Joan's 19th great grandfather and he is my38th great grandfather.

 

"Joan of Acre was a daughter of King Edward I of England and his firstwife, Eleanor of Castile. She is not to be confused with Joan of Arc.

 

"Joan got her name from her birthplace, Akko (Acre), Hazofan,Palestine. It differentiates her from an earlier Joan born to thecouple, who died in infancy. Joan of Acre was born while her parentswere traveling to the Middle East on the Ninth Crusade. At least partof her childhood she spent in France with her maternal grandmother,Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu. She was betrothed as achild to Hartman, son of King Rudolph I of Germany, but he died in1282 after drowning in the Rhine.

 

"In 1290, at Westminster Abbey, Joan married Gilbert de Clare, 7thEarl of Hertford. He was nearly thirty years her senior. They had fourchildren.

 

"Following her husband's death in 1295, Joan clandestinely marriedRalph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, a knight in her household,in 1297. Her father, King Edward I, was enraged by this lowly secondmarriage, especially since he was arranging a marriage for her to anItalian nobleman. He had Monthermer thrown in prison, and Joan had toplead for the release of her husband. According to the St. Albanschronicler, she told her father, "No one sees anything wrong if agreat earl marries a poor and lowly woman. Why should there beanything wrong if a countess marries a young and promising man?" Atlast her father relented, released Monthermer from prison in August1297, and allowed him to hold the title of Earl of Gloucester andHereford during Joan's lifetime. Monthermer and Joan had fourchildren.

 

"Joan died in childbirth in 1307 at the manor of Clare in Suffolk,England, a family possession, and was buried at the Augustinian priorythere. Her child was stillborn. Miracles were said to occur at hergrave, especially the healing of toothache, back pain, and fever."

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Sources

 

* Costain, Thomas. A History of the Plantagenets, Vol III.

* Underhill, Frances A. For Her Good Estate, 1999.

* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_of_England,_Countess_of_Gloucester

 

 

Notes for Gilbert de Clare:

 

Gilbert bore two titles, the Earl of Gloucester and the Earl ofHertford. His second wife is Joan Plantagenet, my 19th cousin, 14times removed.

 

"Gilbert was nicknamed the 'Red Earl' after the colour of his hair.He was the eldest son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester &Hertford and Margaret de Lacy, the Countess of Lincoln. After hisfather's death in 1262, Gilbert, still a minor, inherited vast estatesin the West Country, the Welsh Marches and Ireland. He took possessionthe following year.

 

"During Simon de Montfort's Rebellion of 1263-4, Gilbert was,initially, a keen supporter and he and his brother were knighted bythe Earl shortly before the Battle of Lewes. However, being the twomost powerful men in the country, a clash was inevitable. Gilbert wasgreedy for the spoils of victory, including additional authority inthe government and a degree of independence for his vast estates. Hetherefore stood up as a defender of the 'Provisions of Oxford' - hisfather's initiative to establish a proto-parliament - and inferredthat De Montfort's despotism was betraying its principles. In May1265, Gilbert split from the De Montfort party and allied himself withthe newly escaped Prince Edward, for whom he won the Battle ofEvesham. However, while the surviving followers of De Montfort thoughthim a traitor, Gilbert's relationship with the Royalist party washardly less strained.

 

"He became a champion for disinherited rebel sympathizers andprotested at the lack of implementation of the 'Provisions of Oxford',even though the Royal victory rendered these redundant. Withconstitutional restraint and decency as his watch words, Gilbert seemsto have hoped to exercise a detached role in English political life.When he found this impossible, he raised an army in 1267 and took overthe city of London. His grievances were then placed before thearbitration of Richard, Earl of Cornwall. To all the World, Gilbertthence appeared reconciled with the establishment, but discontent wasstill festering.

 

"Gilbert took up the cause of the Cross in 1268 and promised to go onCrusade with Prince Edward two years later, although this never cameto fruition. The following year, he succeeded in securing therestoration of lands to those who had been disinherited. Thereafter,however, his political autonomy was rendered impotent by firm Royalcontrol and he remained loyal to King Edward I. Having been divorcedfrom Henry II's hypochondriac half-niece, Alice De Lusignan, in 1271,Gilbert remarried, in 1290, to Edward I's daughter, Joan of Acre. Themarriage contract stipulated his vast estates could only be inheritedby their descendents, thus greatly increasing the chances of themreverting to the Crown (which, indeed, occurred in 1314). Gilbert wasthus bound still more closely to the Royal Court; although, as late as1292, he was being tried over disputed rights in the Welsh Marches. Heonly gained his freedom and the restoration of his lands, after payinga fine of 10,000 marks (£6,666.13s.4d).

 

"Gilbert De Clare spent his life attempting to establish himself in anindependent political role from which he might negotiate his loyaltyto the Crown. Whatever his actual view of the 'Provisions of Oxford',he played off one faction against another in the Civil War, exploitingthe situation as an easy means of pursuing his own personal agenda. Inthis, he ultimately failed and was subsequently humiliated, largelybecause of his own political

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incompetence, but also due to theincrease of Royal power after the Baronial Wars. In the end, althoughhe remained at Court, he had become a relic of a bygone age. EarlGilbert died in December 1295, at the age of fifty-two, and was buriedin Tewkesbury Abbey (Gloucestershire); although his widow may haveburied his heart in the church at their favoured Berkshire manor ofLong Wittenham, where the two often stayed when attended the King atOxford and Woodstock."

 

Source for this article:http://www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/gdeclare.html

Joan Plantagenet and Gilbert de Clare had the following children:

i.

GILBERT DE CLARE (son of Gilbert de Clare and Joan Plantagenet).

ii.

ELEANOR DE CLARE (daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan Plantagenet).

iii.

ELIZABETH DE CLARE (daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan Plantagenet).

56.

iv.

MARGARET DE CLARE (daughter of Gilbert de Clare and Joan Plantagenet) was born in 1298 in Gloucestershire, England. She died on 13 Apr 1342 in France. She married (1) HUGH DE AUDLEY (son of Hugh de Audley and Isolde Mortimer) on 28 Apr 1317 in Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England. He was born in 1289 in Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire County, England. He died on 10 Nov 1347. She married (2) PIERS DE GAVESTON on 01 Nov 1307.

Joan Plantagenet and Ralph de Monthermer had the following children:

i.

MARY DE MONTHERMER (daughter of Ralph de Monthermer and Joan Plantagenet) was born in Oct 1297.

ii.

JOAN DE MONTHERMER (daughter of Ralph de Monthermer and Joan Plantagenet) was born in 1299.

iii.

THOMAS DE MONTHERMER (son of Ralph de Monthermer and Joan Plantagenet) was born in 1301.

iv.

EDWARD DE MONTHERMER (son of Ralph de Monthermer and Joan Plantagenet) was born in 1304. He died in 1339.

 

Notes for Edward de Monthermer:

 

He fought in the Scottish campaign in 1335, but spent much of his lifein service to his half-sister Elizabeth, who provided for him duringhis last illness and buried him next to their mother.

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_of_England,_Countess_of_Gloucester

52.

ELIZABETH PLANTAGENET (Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 07 Aug 1282. She died on 05 May 1316. She married Humphrey de Bohun on 14 Nov 1302. He was born in 1276. He died on 16 Mar 1377.

Elizabeth Plantagenet and Humphrey de Bohun had the following child:

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57.

i.

MARGARET DE BOHUN (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun and Elizabeth Plantagenet). She died in 1391. She married HUGH DE COURTNAY. He died in 1377.

53.

EDWARD (Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarvon, Wales. He died on 21 Sep 1327 in Near Gloucester. He married ISABELLA OF FRANCE.

 

Notes for Edward:

 

Edward II, my 14th cousin, 19 times removed, was one of the most unsuccessful kings in English history. He was a poor general and was disliked by nearly all his barons and even by his wife, Queen Isabella of France.

 

Edward, a member of the Plantagenet royal family, was born in Caernarfon, Wales. He was the first heir to the English throne to receive the title Prince of Wales. He succeeded his father, Edward I, in 1307. The young king's reign was troubled by many political trials and executions. In 1314, he lost an important battle to the Scottish leader Robert Bruce at Bannockburn, Scotland.

 

In 1325, Queen Isabella made a return visit to France, her country of origin. From there, she and her lover, Roger Mortimer, organized an invasion of England. They and their supporters forced Edward to give up the throne to his son Edward III in 1327. Edward II was murdered that year.

 

Source: John Gillingham, Senior Lecturer, London School of Economics and Political Science, Univ. of London, World Book Encyclopedia CD1998.

Edward and Isabella of France had the following child:

58.

i.

EDWARD III (son of Edward and Isabella of France) was born on 13 Nov 1312 in Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England. He died on 21 Jun 1377 in Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey, England. He married Philippa of Hainaut (daughter of William) on 24 Jan 1328 in York Minster, Yorkshire County, England. She was born on 24 Jun 1311. She died on 15 Aug 1369 in Windsor, Berkshire, England.

54.

EDMUND (Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born in 1301. He died in 1330. He married MARGARET WAKE. She died in 1349.

Edmund and Margaret Wake had the following child:

59.

i.

THOMAS DE HOLLAND (son of Edmund and Margaret Wake). He married JOAN. She was born in 1328. She died in 1385.

55.

WILLIAM ABNEY (William Abney, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini, William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson,

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Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson).

 

Notes for William Abney:

 

William Abney of Abney. He was the first to witness an Eyam Charterof the Layun's found in Wooly, Original Charter VIII, No. 7, in 2Edward III (1329). An Eyam was probably in Stoke.

William Abney had the following child:

60.

i.

JOHN DE ABNEY (son of William Abney).

Generation 23

56.

MARGARET DE CLARE (Joan Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Gilbert de Clare, Richard de Clare) was born in 1298 in Gloucestershire, England. She died on 13 Apr 1342 in France. She married (1) HUGH DE AUDLEY (son of Hugh de Audley and Isolde Mortimer) on 28 Apr 1317 in Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England. He was born in 1289 in Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire County, England. He died on 10 Nov 1347. She married (2) PIERS DE GAVESTON on 01 Nov 1307.

 

Notes for Margaret de Clare:

 

Margaret de Clare is the 15th cousin, 18 times removed to me.

Margaret de Clare and Hugh de Audley had the following child:

61.

i.

MARGARET DE AUDLEY (daughter of Hugh de Audley and Margaret de Clare) was born in 1318 in Stafford, England. She died on 07 Sep 1349 in England. She married Ralph de Stafford (son of Edmund de Stafford and Margaret Basseet) before 06 Jul 1336 in Drayton, Staffordshire, England. He was born on 24 Sep 1301 in Tunbridge, Stafford, England. He died on 31 Aug 1372 in Tunbridge Castle.

57.

MARGARET DE BOHUN (Elizabeth Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Humphrey de Bohun). She died in 1391. She married HUGH DE COURTNAY. He died in 1377.

Margaret de Bohun and Hugh de Courtnay had the following child:

62.

i.

EDWARD COURTNAY (son of Hugh de Courtnay and Margaret de Bohun) was born about 1332. He died between 02 Feb 1368-01 Apr 1371. He married Emmeline Dauney (daughter of John Dauney and Sybil Treverbin) before 1347. She died before 21 Mar 1371.

58.

EDWARD III (Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 13 Nov 1312 in Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England. He died on 21 Jun 1377 in Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey, England. He married Philippa

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of Hainaut (daughter of William) on 24 Jan 1328 in York Minster, Yorkshire County, England. She was born on 24 Jun 1311. She died on 15 Aug 1369 in Windsor, Berkshire, England.

 

Notes for Edward III:

 

King Edward III is my 14th cousin, 19 times removed on my mother's family line. He also is the first cousin, 11 times removed to Edward Southworth, the first husband of Alice Carpenter, my seventh grea tgrandmother through her second husband, Plymouth Colony GovernorWilliam Bradford on my father's family line.

 

In the Bible (John 6:31), people following and questioning Jesus cited the fact that their forefathers, out in the wilderness, had been given manna to eat by God. That was about 1,350 years prior to their discussion with Jesus. That length of time is similar as between us today and when King Edward III was on the throne. It is not often that we think of events that far removed from us today that we cite it in contemporary debate!

 

Edward III became king of England in 1327. He succeeded his father, Edward II, and belonged to the Plantagenet family of English rulers. During the 1330's, Edward invaded Scotland. He won victories there,but he could not crush the Scottish spirit of independence that had been built up by the famous Scotsman, Robert Bruce.

 

"Edward's forces won the Battle of Crecy in what is now the Normandy region of France. This conflict was the first major battle between France and England in the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). Edward claimed to be the rightful king of France, and he conquered much of that country. He paid for the war by introducing an efficient system of taxing imports.

 

"In the last few years of his reign, Edward failed to provide vigorous leadership. The French recovered some of their land, and Edward's popularity declined. Even so, he was long remembered as an ideal king and a fine soldier. Edward was born in Windsor, near London."

 

Source: John Gillingham, Senior Lecturer, London School of Economicsand Political Science, Univ. of London, World Book Encyclopedia CD1998.

 

He was said to have three illegitimate children by Alice Perrers.

 

(Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon32.html)

 

"The fifty-year reign of Edward III was a dichotomy in English development. Governmental reforms affirmed the power of the emerging middle class in Parliament while placing the power of the nobility into the hands a few. Chivalric code reached an apex in English society but only masked the greed and ambition of Edward and his barons. Social conditions were equally ambiguous: the export of raw wool (and later, the wool cloth industry) prospered and spread wealth across the nation but was offset by the devastation wrought by the Black Death. Early success in war ultimately failed to produce lasting results. Edward proved a most capable king in a time of great evolution in England.

 

"Edward's youth was spent in his mother's court and he was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed. After three years of domination by his mother and her lover, Roger Mortimer, Edward instigated a palace revolt in 1330 and assumed control of the government. Mortimer was executed and Isabella was exiled from court.Edward was married to Philippa of Hainault in 1328 and the union produced many children; the 75% survival rate of their children - nine out of twelve lived through adulthood - was incredible considering conditions of the day.

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"War occupied the largest part of Edward's reign. He and Edward Baliol defeated David II of Scotland and drove David into exile in 1333.French cooperation with the Scots, French aggression in Gascony, andEdward's claim to the disputed throne of France (through his mother,Isabella) led to the first phase of the Hundred Years' war. The nava lbattle of Sluys (1340) gave England control of the Channel, and battles at Crecy (1346) and Calais (1347) established English supremacy on land. Hostilities ceased in the aftermath of the Black Death but war flared up again with an English invasion of France in1355. Edward, the Black Prince and eldest son of Edward III, trounced the French cavalry at Poitiers (1356) and captured the French KingJohn. In 1359, the Black Prince encircled Paris with his army and the defeated French negotiated for peace. The Treaty of Bretigny in 1360 ceded huge areas of northern and western France to English sovereignty. Hostilities arose again in 1369 as English armies under the king's third son, John of Gaunt, invaded France. English military strength, weakened considerably after the plague, gradually lost so much ground that by 1375, Edward agreed to the Treaty of Bruges,leaving only the coastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux, and Bayonne inEnglish hands.

 

"The nature of English society transformed greatly during Edward's reign. Edward learned from the mistakes of his father and affected more cordial relations with the nobility than any previous monarch. Feudalism dissipated as mercantilism emerged: the nobility changed from a large body with relatively small holdings to a small body that held great lands and wealth. Mercenary troops replaced feudal obligations as the means of gathering armies. Taxation of exports and commerce overtook land-based taxes as the primary form of financing government (and war). Wealth was accrued by merchants as they and other middle class subjects appeared regularly for parliamentary sessions. Parliament formally divided into two houses - the upper representing the nobility and high clergy with the lower representing the middle classes - and met regularly to finance Edward's wars and pass statutes. Treason was defined by statute for the first time (1352), the office of Justice of the Peace was created to aid sheriffs (1361), and English replaced French as the national language (1362).

 

"Despite the king's early successes and England's general prosperity,much remained amiss in the realm. Edward and his nobles touted romantic chivalry as their credo while plundering a devastated France;chivalry emphasized the glory of war while reality stressed its costs.The influence of the Church decreased but John Wycliff spearheaded an ecclesiastical reform movement that challenged church exploitation by both the king and the pope. During 1348-1350, bubonic plague (theBlack Death) ravaged the populations of Europe by as much as a fifty percent. The flowering English economy was struck hard by the ensuing rise in prices and wages. The failed military excursions of John of Gaunt into France caused excessive taxation and eroded Edward's popular support.

 

"The last years of Edward's reign mirrored the first, in that a woman again dominated him. Philippa died in 1369 and Edward took the unscrupulous Alice Perrers as his mistress. With Edward in his dotage and the Black Prince ill, Perrers and William Latimer (the chamberlain of the household) dominated the court with the support of John of Gaunt. Edward, the Black Prince, died in 1376 and the old king spent the last year of his life grieving. Rafael Holinshed, in Chronicles of England, suggested that Edward believed the death of his son was a punishment for usurping his father's crown: "But finally the thing that most grieved him, was the loss of that most noble gentleman, his dear son Prince Edward . . . But this and other mishaps that chanced to him now in his old years might seem to come to pass for a revenge of his disobedience showed to his in usurping against him. . ."

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon32.html

 

On April 23, 1348, King Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter (April 23). A study of the Order is posted for easy access and one can see that it still survives today as

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a functioning royal order from the cited Internet web site below. The Order of the Garteri s the most senior and the oldest British Order of Chivalry. The Order, consisting of the King and twenty-five knights, was intended by Edward III to be reserved as the highest reward for loyalty and for military merit. The origin of the emblem of the Order, a blue garter,is obscure. It is said to have been inspired by an incident which took place whilst the King danced with Joan, Countess of Salisbury. TheCountess's garter fell to the floor and after the King retrieved it he tied it to his own leg. Those watching this were apparently amused,but the King admonished them saying, 'Honi soit qui mal y pense' (Shame on him who thinks this evil). This then became the motto of theOrder.

 

Source:http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/page490.asp

 

 

Notes for Philippa of Hainaut:

 

Philippa is the wife of English King Edward III, who is my 14thcousin, 19 times removed. Philippa and I share a common birthday -June 24!

 

"Philippa of Hainaut, queen of the English King Edward III, was thedaughter of William the Good, count of Holland and Hainaut, and hiswife Jeanne de Valois, granddaughter of Philippe III of France. Edwardvisited the court of Count William in 1326 with his mother Isabella,who immediately arranged a marriage between him and Philippa. After adispensation had been obtained for the marriage of the cousins (theywere both descendants of Philippe III) Philippa was married by proxyat Valenciennes in October 1327, and landed in England in December.

 

"She joined Edward at York, where she was married on the 30th ofJanuary 1328. Her marriage dower had been seized by the queen dowagerIsabella to pay a body of Hainauters, with whose help she hadcompassed her husband's deposition. The alliance ensured for Edward inhis French wars the support of Philippa's influential kindred; andbefore starting on his French campaign he secured troops from Williamthe Good, as well as from the count of Gelderland, the count ofJulick, and the emperor Louis the Bavarian. Her mother Jeanne deValois, visited her in 1331 and further cemented the community ofinterests between England and Flanders.

 

"Before 1335 Philippa had established a small colony of Flemishweavers at Norwich, and she showed an active interest in the weavingtrade by repeated visits to the town. She also encouraged coal miningon her estates in Tynedale. Her eldest son, Edward the Black Prince,was born in 1330, and she subsequently bore six sons and fivedaughters. In November 1342 she became guardian of John of Gaunt andher younger children, with their lands. Her agents are said to haveshown great harshness in collecting the feudal dues with which tosupply her large household. The anecdotes of her piety and generositywhich have been preserved are proof, however, of her popularity. Sheinterceded in 1331 with the king for some carpenters whose carelesswork on a platform resulted in an accident to herself and her ladies,and on a more famous occasion her prayers saved the citizens of Calaisfrom Edward's vengeance.

"There is a generally accepted story based on the chronicles of Jehanle Bel and Froissart, that she summoned the English forces to meet theScottish invasion of 1346, and harangued the troops before the battleof Neville's Cross. She certainly exercised considerable influenceover her husband, whom she constantly accompanied on his campaigns andher death on the 15th of August 1369 was a misfortune for the kingdomat large, since Edward from that time came under the domination of therapacious Alice Perrers. Philippa was the patron and friend ofFroissart, who was her secretary from 1361 to 1366. Queen's College,Oxford, was not, as is stated in Skelton's version of her epitaph,founded by her, but by her chaplain, Robert of Eglesfield. Her chiefbenefactions

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were made to the hospital of St. Katharine's by theTower, London."

 

Source:http://www.nndb.com/people/857/000097566/

Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut had the following children:

63.

i.

EDWARD (son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut) was born on 15 Jun 1330 in Woodstock. He died on 08 Jun 1376 in Westminster, England. He married Joan (daughter of Edmond and Margaret Wake) in Oct 1361. She was born on 29 Sep 1328. She died on 08 Aug 1385.

64.

ii.

LIONEL (son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut) was born on 29 Nov 1338 in Antwerp, England. He died on 07 Oct 1368 in Alba, Italy. He married ELIZABETH DE BURGH.

65.

iii.

JOHN (son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut) was born on 24 Jun 1340 in Ghent, England. He died on 03 Feb 1399 in Leicester Castle, England. He married (1) BLANCHE (daughter of Henry) on 19 May 1359. She died on 30 Sep 1379. He married (2) CONSTANCE (daughter of Pedro) in Jun 1371. She died in 1394. He married (3) CATHERINE ROET (daughter of Paon Roet) in Jan 1397. She was born in 1350. She died on 10 May 1403. He married (4) KATHERINE SWYNFORD (daughter of Payne Roet) about 1395.

iv.

MARY PLANTAGENET (daughter of Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut) was born on 10 Oct 1344. She died in Dec 1362. She married John V. Brittany on 03 Jul 1361 in Woodstock Palace.

 

Notes for Mary Plantagenet:

Mary is the 9th great grand aunt of the husband of the stepdaughter of the 6th my sixth great grand uncle.

 

Mary was betrothed in childhood to John V of Brittany, who grew up with her. The betrothal was held c. 1355.

In 1348 Mary met her mother and sister-in-law Joanna. Then in 1360 she went to stay with her sister-in-law Blanche of Lancaster.

On 3 July 1361 she and John were married at Woodstock Palace, and acknowledged as Duke and Duchess of Brittany.

Within thirty weeks of marriage (March 1362) Mary became lethargic and died in December, she was buried in Abingdon Abbey with her sister Margaret, Countess of Pembroke, who died weeks before her. John would marry again, firstly to Joan Holland (1366) (a cousin of Richard II of England) and secondly to Joanna of Navarre (1386).

Mary's statue can still be seen on south side of the tomb of Edward III of England in Westminster Abbey. She never visited Brittany 

 

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Plantagenet

66.

v.

THOMAS PLANTAGENET (son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut) was born on 07 Jan 1355 in Oxford County, England. He died about 1397. He married Alianore de Bohun (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun IX and Joan Alan) in 1376. She died on 03 Oct 1399.

vi.

WILLIAM (son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut).

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vii.

JOAN (daughter of Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut).

viii.

ISABELLA (daughter of Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut).

ix.

ELEANOR (daughter of Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut).

59.

THOMAS DE HOLLAND (Edmund, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edmund, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey). He married JOAN. She was born in 1328. She died in 1385.

Thomas de Holland and Joan had the following child:

67.

i.

ELEANOR DE HOLLAND (daughter of Thomas de Holland and Joan). She married EDWARD CHERLETON. He was born in 1371. He died in 1420.

60.

JOHN DE ABNEY (William Abney, William Abney, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini, William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson).

 

Notes for John de Abney:

 

John's name was given at Eyam in a Poll Tax of Richard II (1388).

John de Abney had the following child:

68.

i.

WILLIAM ABNEY (son of John de Abney).

Generation 24

61.

MARGARET DE AUDLEY (Margaret de Clare, Joan Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Hugh de Audley, Hugh de Audley) was born in 1318 in Stafford, England. She died on 07 Sep 1349 in England. She married Ralph de Stafford (son of Edmund de Stafford and Margaret Basseet) before 06 Jul 1336 in Drayton, Staffordshire, England. He was born on 24 Sep 1301 in Tunbridge, Stafford, England. He died on 31 Aug 1372 in Tunbridge Castle.

 

Notes for Margaret de Audley:

 

Margaret is related to the second United States President, John Adams,as his wife was her second cousin, fourteen times removed. That meansthat that their son, the sixth President of the United States, JohnQuincy Adams, is Margaret's second cousin, fifteen times removed.Margaret is my 15th cousin, 18 times removed.

 

Margaret is a great granddaughter to English King Edward I and hisfirst wife, Eleanor of

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Castile.

Margaret de Audley and Ralph de Stafford had the following children:

69.

i.

BEATRICE STAFFORD (daughter of Ralph de Stafford and Margaret de Audley). She married (1) THOMAS DE ROS in 1358. He died on 08 Jun 1384 in Helmsley. She married MAURICE.

70.

ii.

HUGH STAFFORD (son of Ralph de Stafford and Margaret de Audley). He married PHILLIAPPI BEAUCHAMP.

62.

EDWARD COURTNAY (Margaret de Bohun, Elizabeth Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Hugh de Courtnay) was born about 1332. He died between 02 Feb 1368-01 Apr 1371. He married Emmeline Dauney (daughter of John Dauney and Sybil Treverbin) before 1347. She died before 21 Mar 1371.

 

 

Notes for Emmeline Dauney:

 

Emmeline's death is thought to be one or the other of two suggesteddates: February 28 or March 2, 1371.

Edward Courtnay and Emmeline Dauney had the following child:

71.

i.

HUGH COURTNAY (son of Edward Courtnay and Emmeline Dauney). He died on 15 Mar 1425. He married PHILIPPA L'ARCEDEKNE.

63.

EDWARD (Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 15 Jun 1330 in Woodstock. He died on 08 Jun 1376 in Westminster, England. He married Joan (daughter of Edmond and Margaret Wake) in Oct 1361. She was born on 29 Sep 1328. She died on 08 Aug 1385.

 

Notes for Edward:

 

Edward was a famous English warrior. He was the Prince of Wales. Heis the 15th cousin, 18 times removed to me.

 

"Sir Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, popularly known as theBlack Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England andPhilippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. Hehimself never ruled as king, pre-deceasing his father by one year andallowing the throne to pass to his son Richard, a minor.

 

"Edward is almost always now called the "Black Prince", but he wasnever known as such during his lifetime (instead being known as Edwardof Woodstock after his place of birth). The "Black Prince" title doesnot appear in writing until at least 200 years after his death. Itsorigin is uncertain; while some later historians have speculated thathe may have worn black armour (possibly presented to him by his fatherat the battle of CrÈcy), or a black surcoat over his armour, it isalso likely that the name was first coined by French chroniclers inreference to the ruinous military defeats he had inflicted on Franceor his cruelty in these.

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One possibly apocryphal etymology of thephrase has it deriving from the blackness of his tomb effigy from dirtand/or black polish, when it is in fact shiny metal.

 

"Edward lived in a century of decline for the knightly ideal ofchivalry. The formation of the Order of the Garter, an English royalorder of which Edward was a founding member, signified a shift towardspatriotism and away from the crusader mentality that characterizedEngland in the previous two centuries. Edward's stance in thisevolution is seemingly somewhat divided. Edward displayed obedience totypical chivalric obligations through his pious contributions toCanterbury Cathedral throughout his life. He, like many in the Englishroyal family, was married and buried there. However, during hiscampaigns in France, his practice of accepted chivalric wartimepractices was highly inconsistent.

 

"On one hand, after capturing John the Good and his youngest son atPoitiers, he treated them with great respect, at one point giving Johnleave to return home, and he reportedly prayed with John at CanterburyCathedral. Notably, he also allowed a day for preparations before theBattle of Poitiers so that both sides could discuss the upcomingbattle with one another, and so that the Cardinal of Perigord couldplead for peace. Though not agreeing with knightly charges on thebattlefield, he also was devoted to tournament jousting, notably shownin the film "A Knight's Tale" (though, it is very hard to extractfacts from the film).

 

"On the other hand, his chivalric leanings were overridden bypragmatism on most occasions. His chevauchee strategy were not inkeeping with contemporary notions of chivalry, but they were quitesuccessful in accomplishing the goals of his campaigns and weakeningthe unity and economy of France. On the actual battlefield, pragmatismover chivalry is also revelealed via the massed use of infantrystrongholds, longbowmen, and flank attacks (a revolutionary practicein such a chivalric age). Moreover, he was exceptionally harsh to andcontemptuous of lower classes in society, this being shown by theheavy taxes he levied as Prince of Aquitaine and by the massacres heperpetrated at Limoges and Caen. However, Edward's behavior was (to anextent) typical of an increasing number of knights and nobles duringthe late Middle Ages who paid less and less attention to the highideal of chivalry.

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward,_the_Black_Prince

Edward and Joan had the following children:

i.

EDWARD (son of Edward and Joan).

ii.

RICHARD II (son of Edward and Joan) was born in 1367 in Bordeaux, France. He died on 14 Feb 1400 in Murdered at the Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire County, England. He married (1) ANNE (daughter of Charles) on 14 Jan 1382 in St. Stephen's Chapel in the Palace of Westminster, Middlesex, England. She died in 1394. He married (2) ISABELLA OF VALOIS (daughter of Charles and Isabeau de BaviËre) on 31 Oct 1396. She was born on 09 Nov 1389. She died on 13 Sep 1410.

 

Notes for Richard II:

 

Richard II was king of England from 1377 to 1399. He ascended the throne at the age of 10 when his grandfather, King Edward III, died. King Richard is my 16th cousin, 17 times removed.

 

During the first four years of Richard's reign, a council ruled England on his behalf, and Richard's uncle, John of Gaunt, exercised much influence. However, the council could not agree on a consistent governing policy. One result was Wat Tyler's Rebellion of 1381, which the young king courageously put down. For the next few years, Richard tried to increase his control over

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the government with the help of favorite advisers. But many of his favorites were imprisoned or executed by the "Merciless Parliament" of 1388. In 1389, Richard began to rule on his own.

 

Richard ruled well in the early 1390's. But, through his control of the "Revenge Parliament" of 1397, he began to punish many of his enemies. He became increasingly tyrannical and angered the English people with such measures as forced loans and loyalty oaths.

 

In 1399, Richard led an expedition to Ireland. While he was there, John of Gaunt's son Henry of Bolingbroke led a revolt against Richard in England. The revolt resulted in Richard's removal from the throne. Bolingbroke became King Henry IV. Richard died in early 1400. He was probably murdered, but such is not determined.

 

Richard was born in Bordeaux, France. Richard supported the arts and the famous English writer Geoffrey Chaucer.

 

Contributor: George B. Stow, Ph.D., Prof. of History, LaSalle Univ.

 

No children came from either of his two marriages.

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon33.html 

 

Richard II was the son of Edward, the Black Prince and Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent. Edward was but ten years old when he succeeded his grandfather, Edward III ; England was ruled by a council under the leadership of John of Gaunt , and Richard was tutored by Sir Simon Burley. He married the much-beloved Anne of Bohemia in 1382, who died childless in 1394. Edward remarried in 1396, wedding the seven year old Isabella of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France, to end a further struggle with France.

 

Richard asserted royal authority during an era of royal restrictions. Economic hardship followed the Black Death, as wages and prices rapidly increased. Parliament exacerbated the problem by passing legislation limiting wages, but failing also to regulate prices. In1381, Wat Tyler led the Peasants' Revolt against the oppressive government policies of John of Gaunt. Richard's unwise generosity to his favorites - Michael de la Pole, Robert de Vere and others - ledThomas, Duke of Gloucester and four other magnates to form the Lords Appellant. The five Lords Appellant tried and convicted five of Richard's closest advisors for treason. In 1397, Richard arrested three of the five Lords, coerced Parliament to sentence them to death and banished the other two. One of the exiles was Henry Bolingbroke ,the future King Henry IV. Richard travelled to Ireland in 1399 to quell warring chieftains, allowing Bolingboke to return to England ,and be elected King by Parliament. Richard lacked support, and was quickly captured by Henry IV.

 

Deposed in 1399, Richard was murdered while in prison, the first casualty of the Wars of the Roses between the Houses of Lancaster andYork.

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon33.html 

 

The world renown poet, Geoffrey Chaucer, served as a diplomat and Clerk ofThe King's Works for Richard II. Their relationship encompassed all of Richard's reign, and was apparently fruitful. On April 21, 1897, Geoffrey Chaucer begin telling the 'Cantebury Tales' for the first time at the court of

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King Richard.

 

In the decade before Chaucer's death, Richard granted him several gifts and annuities, including: 20 pounds a year for life in 1394, and 252 gallons of wine per year in 1397. Chaucer died on October 25, 1400. Chaucer is my 18th great grandfather through my mother's line.

64.

LIONEL (Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 29 Nov 1338 in Antwerp, England. He died on 07 Oct 1368 in Alba, Italy. He married ELIZABETH DE BURGH.

Lionel and Elizabeth de Burgh had the following child:

72.

i.

PHILIPPA PLANTAGENET (daughter of Lionel and Elizabeth de Burgh) was born on 16 Aug 1355. She married Edmund Mortimer in 1368. He was born in 1352. He died on 27 Dec 1381.

65.

JOHN (Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 24 Jun 1340 in Ghent, England. He died on 03 Feb 1399 in Leicester Castle, England. He married (1) BLANCHE (daughter of Henry) on 19 May 1359. She died on 30 Sep 1379. He married (2) CONSTANCE (daughter of Pedro) in Jun 1371. She died in 1394. He married (3) CATHERINE ROET (daughter of Paon Roet) in Jan 1397. She was born in 1350. She died on 10 May 1403. He married (4) KATHERINE SWYNFORD (daughter of Payne Roet) about 1395.

 

Notes for John:

 

John is my 15th cousin, 18 times removed. He is the second cousin, 10times removed of Edward Southworth, the first husband of AliceCarpenter. She is my seventh great grandmother through her second husband, Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford.

 

"John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster was the third surviving son of KingEdward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He gained his name"John of Gaunt," because he was born at Ghent in 1340. The fabulously wealthy Gaunt exercised tremendous influence over the throne during the minority reign of his nephew, Richard II, and during the ensuing periods of political strife, but took care not to be openly associated with opponents of the King.

 

"John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included KingsHenry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. John of Gaunt's illegitimate descendants, who ultimately became legitimate by his marriage toKatherine Swynford in 1396, the Beauforts, later married into theHouse of Tudor, which ascended to the throne in the person of HenryVII. In addition, Gaunt's legitimate descendants included hisd aughters Philippa of Lancaster, Queen consort of John I of Portugaland mother of King Edward of Portugal, Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter,the mother of John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter, and Katherine ofLancaster, Queen consort of Henry III of Castile, a grand-daughter ofPedro of Castile and the mother of John II of Castile.

 

"When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates were declared forfeit to the crown, as Richard II had exiled John's less diplomatic heir, Henry Bolingbroke, in 1398. Bolingbroke

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returned and deposed the unpopularRichard, to reign as King Henry IV of England (1399?1413), the firstof the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.John of Gaunt was buried in the nave of Old St. Paul's Cathedral in analabaster tomb designed by Henry Yevele (similar to that of his son inCanterbury Cathedral)."

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Gaunt%2C_1st_Duke_of_Lancaster

John and Blanche had the following children:

73.

i.

HENRY IV (son of John and Blanche) was born on 03 Apr 1367 in Bolingbroke, in Lincolnshire, in his father's castle. He died on 20 Mar 1413 in Westminister Palace. He married Mary de Bohun (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun) in Rochford, Essex, England. She was born in 1368. She died on 04 Jul 1394 in Peterborough, Northants, England.

74.

ii.

JOAN BEAUFORT (daughter of John and Blanche) was born about 1379 in Beaufort Castle, Anjou. She died on 13 Nov 1440. She married (1) ROBERT DE FERRERS before 30 Sep 1390. He died before 29 Nov 1396. She married (2) RALPH DE NEVILLE before 03 Feb 1397. He was born before 1364. He died on 21 Oct 1425 in Raby, England.

John and Catherine Roet had the following children:

75.

iii.

JOHN BEAUFORT (son of John and Catherine Roet) was born in 1373. He died on 16 Mar 1410. He married Margaret de Holand (daughter of Thomas de Holand and Alice FitzAlan) on 23 Aug 1397. She was born in 1385. She died on 30 Dec 1439.

76.

iv.

HENRY BEAUFORT (son of John and Catherine Roet) was born in 1374 in Beaufort Castle, Anjou, France. He died on 11 Apr 1447 in Wolvesey Palace, Winchester, England. He married ALICE FITZALAN. She was born in 1372.

74.

ii.

JOAN BEAUFORT (daughter of John and Blanche) was born about 1379 in Beaufort Castle, Anjou. She died on 13 Nov 1440. She married (1) ROBERT DE FERRERS before 30 Sep 1390. He died before 29 Nov 1396. She married (2) RALPH DE NEVILLE before 03 Feb 1397. He was born before 1364. He died on 21 Oct 1425 in Raby, England.

John and Katherine Swynford had the following children:

vi.

HENRY BEAUFORT (son of John and Katherine Swynford).

 

Notes for Henry Beaufort:

 

"Katherine, a widow with two young daughters, first became John?smistress. Their four children, Henry, John, Thomas, and Joan, werestyled Beaufort due to their illegitimacy and barred from thesuccession to the throne, which in the end didn?t matter."

 

Source:http://groups.msn.com/ALLMYTUDORShistorychat/yourwebpage5.msnw

78.

vii.

JOHN BEAUFORT (son of John and Katherine Swynford) was born in 1404. He died on 27 May 1444.

viii.

THOMAS BEAUFORT (son of John and Katherine Swynford). He married ELEANOR DE BOHUN.

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Generation 24

 

Notes for Thomas Beaufort:

 

"Katherine, a widow with two young daughters, first became John?smistress. Their four children, Henry, John, Thomas, and Joan, werestyled Beaufort due to their illegitimacy and barred from thesuccession to the throne, which in the end didn?t matter."

 

Source:http://groups.msn.com/ALLMYTUDORShistorychat/yourwebpage5.msnw

ix.

JOAN BEAUFORT (daughter of John and Katherine Swynford). She married RALPH NEVILLE. He died on 15 Jan 1458.

 

Notes for Joan Beaufort:

 

"Katherine, a widow with two young daughters, first became John?smistress. Their four children, Henry, John, Thomas, and Joan, werestyled Beaufort due to their illegitimacy and barred from thesuccession to the throne, which in the end didn?t matter."

 

Source:http://groups.msn.com/ALLMYTUDORShistorychat/yourwebpage5.msnw

66.

THOMAS PLANTAGENET (Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 07 Jan 1355 in Oxford County, England. He died about 1397. He married Alianore de Bohun (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun IX and Joan Alan) in 1376. She died on 03 Oct 1399.

 

Notes for Thomas Plantagenet:

 

Known as Thomas of Woodstock. He is my 15th cousin, 18 times removed.

Thomas Plantagenet and Alianore de Bohun had the following child:

79.

i.

ANNE PLANTAGENET (daughter of Thomas Plantagenet and Alianore de Bohun) was born after 1376. She married (1) EDMUND before 1403. He died in 1403. She married (2) WILLIAM BOURCHIER on 20 Nov 1405. He died on 28 May 1420 in Troyes, England.

67.

ELEANOR DE HOLLAND (Thomas de Holland, Edmund, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Thomas de Holland, Edmund, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey). She married EDWARD CHERLETON. He was born in 1371. He died in 1420.

Eleanor de Holland and Edward Cherleton had the following child:

80.

i.

JOYCE CHERLETON (daughter of Edward Cherleton and Eleanor de Holland) was born in 1402. She died in 1445. She married JOHN DE TIBETOT. He died in 1443.

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68.

WILLIAM ABNEY (John de Abney, William Abney, William Abney, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini, William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson).

William Abney had the following child:

81.

i.

JOHN ABNEY (son of William Abney). He married de Ingwardby (daughter of William de Ingwardby) about 1419.

Generation 25

69.

BEATRICE STAFFORD (Margaret de Audley, Margaret de Clare, Joan Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Ralph de Stafford, Edmund de Stafford). She married (1) THOMAS DE ROS in 1358. He died on 08 Jun 1384 in Helmsley. She married MAURICE.

Beatrice Stafford and Thomas de Ros had the following child:

82.

i.

WILLIAM DE ROS (son of Thomas de Ros and Beatrice Stafford). He died on 01 Sep 1414 in Belvoir. He married MARGARET FITZ ALAN DE ARUNDEL. She died on 03 Jul 1438.

70.

HUGH STAFFORD (Margaret de Audley, Margaret de Clare, Joan Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Ralph de Stafford, Edmund de Stafford). He married PHILLIAPPI BEAUCHAMP.

Hugh Stafford and Philliappi Beauchamp had the following child:

83.

i.

MARGARET STAFFORD (daughter of Hugh Stafford and Philliappi Beauchamp). She married RALPH DE NEVILLE.

71.

HUGH COURTNAY (Edward Courtnay, Margaret de Bohun, Elizabeth Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward Courtnay, Hugh de Courtnay). He died on 15 Mar 1425. He married PHILIPPA L'ARCEDEKNE.

Hugh Courtnay and Philippa l'Arcedekne had the following child:

84.

i.

JOAN COURTNAY (daughter of Hugh Courtnay and Philippa l'Arcedekne). She married (1) NICHOLAS CAREW before 1446. He died in 1446. She married (2) ROBERT DE VERE after 1446.

72.

PHILIPPA PLANTAGENET (Lionel, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Lionel, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was

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born on 16 Aug 1355. She married Edmund Mortimer in 1368. He was born in 1352. He died on 27 Dec 1381.

 

 

Notes for Edmund Mortimer:

 

By the time of Edmund's birth, the Black Plague had reached Europefrom its beginnings in China and ravaged Europe population by almost25% by the end of the century.

 

Source:http://www.themiddleages.net/plague.html

Philippa Plantagenet and Edmund Mortimer had the following child:

85.

i.

ELIZABETH MORTIMER (daughter of Edmund Mortimer and Philippa Plantagenet) was born after 1368. She married Henry Percy before 10 Dec 1379. He died in 1403 in Slain at Shrewsbury, England.

73.

HENRY IV (John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 03 Apr 1367 in Bolingbroke, in Lincolnshire, in his father's castle. He died on 20 Mar 1413 in Westminister Palace. He married Mary de Bohun (daughter of Humphrey de Bohun) in Rochford, Essex, England. She was born in 1368. She died on 04 Jul 1394 in Peterborough, Northants, England.

 

Notes for Henry IV:

 

King Henry IV is my 16th cousin, 17 times removed. He is the third cousin, nine times removed of Edward Southworth, the first husband of Alice Carpenter, my seventh great grandmother by her second husband, Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford.

 

He was of the Plantagenet succession of Kings, in the LancastrianLine. He was the first king of England of the House of Lancaster. He became king on September 30, 1399, after he forced his rash cousin, King Richard II, from the throne. Many people questioned Henry's claim to the crown. However, Parliament supported him as king and established the Lancastrian dynasty in England.

 

Revolts and conspiracies in England and Wales marred Henry's reign, but he put them down with great effort and with Parliament's support. Hampered by illness in his later years, he allowed his son Henry, who would succeed him as King Henry V, to play a major role in government affairs.

 

Henry IV was the son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. He was often called Henry of Bolingbroke, because he was born at his father's castle of Bolingbroke, in Lincolnshire.

 

Source: Ralph A. Griffiths, D.Litt., Prof. of Medieval History, Univ.of Wales, Swansea, World Book Encyclopedia CD 1998.

Henry IV and Mary de Bohun had the following children:

86.

i.

HENRY V (son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun) was born on 16 Sep 1387. He died on 31 Aug 1422. He married Catherine (daughter of Charles and Isabeau de BaviËre) on 02 Jun 1420 in at the parish Church of St. John. She was born on 27 Oct 1401 in Parish, France. She died on 03 Jan 1437 in

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London, England.

87.

ii.

HUMPHREY (son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun) was born on 03 Oct 1390. He married (1) JACQUELINE (daughter of William) before 07 Mar 1423. He married (2) ELEANOR COBHAM (daughter of Reginald Cobham) in 1428. She died in 1454 in Peel Castle, Isle of Man, as a prisoner.

74.

JOAN BEAUFORT (John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born about 1379 in Beaufort Castle, Anjou. She died on 13 Nov 1440. She married (1) ROBERT DE FERRERS before 30 Sep 1390. He died before 29 Nov 1396. She married (2) RALPH DE NEVILLE before 03 Feb 1397. He was born before 1364. He died on 21 Oct 1425 in Raby, England.

 

Notes for Joan Beaufort:

 

Joan is my 16th cousin, 17 times removed. She also is the thirdcousin, nine times removed of Edward Southworth, the first husband ofAlice Carpenter. Alice is my seventh great grandmother through hersecond husband, Plymouth Colony Govenor William Bradford.

Joan Beaufort and Robert de Ferrers had the following child:

88.

i.

MARY DE FERRERS (daughter of Robert de Ferrers and Joan Beaufort) was born before 1394. She died on 25 Jan 1458. She married RALPH NEVILLE. He died on 15 Jan 1458.

Joan Beaufort and Ralph de Neville had the following children:

89.

i.

RALPH NEVILLE (son of Ralph de Neville and Joan Beaufort). He died on 15 Jan 1458. He married MARY DE FERRERS. She was born before 1394. She died on 25 Jan 1458. He married JOAN BEAUFORT.

90.

ii.

ELEANOR NEVILLE (daughter of Ralph de Neville and Joan Beaufort). She died in 1463. She married HENRY PERCY. He was born on 03 Feb 1393. He died on 22 May 1455 in Slain at St. Albans, England.

91.

iii.

EDWARD DE NEVILLE (son of Ralph de Neville and Joan Beaufort) was born in 1417. He died in 1467. He married (1) ELIZABETH DE BEAUCHAMP (daughter of Richard de Beauchamp and Isabel Despenser) before 18 Oct 1424. She was born on 16 Dec 1415. She died on 18 Jun 1447. He married (2) CATHARINE HOWARD (daughter of Robert Howard and Margaret Mowbray) on 15 Oct 1448. She was born in 1414. She died on 18 Oct 1476.

75.

JOHN BEAUFORT (John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born in 1373. He died on 16 Mar 1410. He married Margaret de Holand (daughter of Thomas de Holand and Alice FitzAlan) on 23 Aug 1397. She was born in 1385. She died on 30 Dec 1439.

 

Notes for John Beaufort:

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Generation 25

 

John is my 16th cousin, 17 times removed. He is the 15th greatgrandson of Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, who is my 32nd great grandfather.

 

John's father, John of Gaunt, married three times. The first timewas to Blanche in 1359. The second was to Constance in 1371. Thethird wife was Catherine, whom he married 1396/7. John Beaufort hereis born about 1370 to 1372, which is about the time John Gaunt wasmarrying Constance. However, my reference information claims thatthis John Beauford was born by John of Gaunt and his third wife,Catherine. So apparently John Beauford was born of an adulterousaffair that later turned into a marriage after John's second wifedied.

 

(Source: "Ancesteral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came toAmerica Before 1700," seventh edition, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr.,editor, Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc. 1991, page 3, line #1,Generations #31 and #32)

John Beaufort and Margaret de Holand had the following children:

92.

i.

JOAN BEAUFORT (daughter of John Beaufort and Margaret de Holand). She married James Stuart on 02 Feb 1423 in Priory Church, St Mary Overy, Southwark, Scotland.

93.

ii.

EDMUND BEAUFORT (son of John Beaufort and Margaret de Holand) was born about 1406. He died on 22 May 1455 in St. Albans, where he was slain. He married Eleanor Beauchamp (daughter of Richard Beauchamp) about 1435. She was born in 1407 in Eddgenoch, County Warwick. She died on 06 Mar 1467.

76.

HENRY BEAUFORT (John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born in 1374 in Beaufort Castle, Anjou, France. He died on 11 Apr 1447 in Wolvesey Palace, Winchester, England. He married ALICE FITZALAN. She was born in 1372.

 

Notes for Henry Beaufort:

 

"Henry Beaufort was the grandson of King Edward III, being second sonof John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by his mistress, Catherine Roet,the wife of Sir Hugh Swynford. He was born at Beaufort Castle in Anjou(France) around 1374, hence his surname. Henry's parents wereeventually married some sixteen years later but, though his cousin,King Richard II, declared the four children of the union to belegitimate, they were barred from the Royal succession.

 

"Henry entered the church and was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln in1398, when he was only twenty-four. With his half-brother seizing thethrone as King Henry IV, Beaufort was appointed Chancellor of Englandin 1403, but resigned a year later upon being transferred to the Seeof Winchester. Here, he succeeded William of Wykeham as Bishop andbegan to exercise considerable influence over the Prince of Wales(later Henry V). Beaufort always remained a steady supporter of theHouse of Lancaster, but his opposition to Thomas Arundel, Archbishopof Canterbury, and his party led to conflict with the Government. Adispute over the estate of Henry Beaufort's elder brother, the Marquisof Dorset, widened the breach between the two factions and, when, in1411, the Prince of Wales suggested that his father abdicate in hisfavour, both he and Henry were dismissed from the Royal Council.

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"The Bishop of Winchester's disgrace lasted only two years, untilHenry IV's death. When Henry V mounted the throne in 1413, Beaufortwas made Chancellor again and ruled supreme in the Government whilethe King invaded France and attempted to restore the old AngevinEmpire. Henry eventually resigned in 1417. He immediately proceeded tothe Council at Constance and used his influence to effect a compromisebetween the rival factions. Grateful for Henry's services, the newPope, Martin V, offered him the Cardinal's Hat; but Henry V refused toallow him to accept it. However, the King died in 1422, shortly afterhaving claimed his place as heir to the throne of France.

 

"Upon the succession of the infant Henry VI, the Bishop returned tothe Council again where he became the chief opponent of the newmonarch's uncle, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and his wild andselfish schemes. He was appointed Chancellor for a third time in 1424and was responsible for the conduct of affairs during Gloucester'sexpedition to Hainault to try and claim his wife's inheritance. Uponhis return, Henry, naturally, reproached the Duke for the folly of hisactions which had put the delicate English alliance with theBurgundians in jeopardy. This led to a riot in London, where theBishop was not popular, and Henry found himself forced to recall, fromFrance, Gloucester's brother, John, Duke of Bedford, as the officialProtector of England. Bedford attempted to arbitrate between the tworivals at the Parliament which met at Leicester in February 1426, butGloucester charged Henry with treason. Though he successfully deniedthe charges and despite an official reconciliation, the Bishop waseventually obliged to resign as Chancellor.

 

"Meanwhile, Pope Martin was eager to secure the Bishop of Winchester'ssupport for his Crusade against the Hussites and offered Henry theCardinal's Hat once more. This time, he accepted. Cardinal Beauforttravelled to France in 1427 where he was made Papal Legate forGermany, Hungary and Bohemia. Moving eastward, he made a bold, thoughfutile, attempt to rally the crusading troops at Tachau.

 

"Back in England, raising money for a renewed crusade, the Cardinalwas received with great pomp in London. However, his newecclesiastical position had weakened his place in the Government andGloucester refused to recognise him as Papal Legate. Henry did notpush the matter, but his opponents did not relent and, in 1429, therewas a concerted, though unsuccessful, effort to deprive him of hisbishopric. Henry raised a large number of troops to set out forBohemia but, with the imminent end to his legateship, he was persuadedto send them to France to relieve the recent English disasters of theHundred Years War. The Cardinal himself accompanied Henry VI acrossthe Channel in April 1430 and, on 16th December the following year, hecrowned him as King of France at the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris.

 

"Gloucester again attempted to deprive Henry of the See of Winchester,during his absence. He argued, in Council, that a Cardinal could nothold an English Bishopric. Though the General Council was inclined todrop the matter, the hostile Privy Council issued writs of praemunireand attachment against the Cardinal and seized some of his jewels.Beaufort soon returned to England and demanded to hear the chargesagainst him at a Parliament held in May 1432. The King declared him aloyal subject and passed a statute freeing the Cardinal from allpenalties he might have incurred.

 

"Henry supported the Duke of Bedford in his attempts to restore orderto the country's finances and, in August 1435, he attended thedisastrous Congress of Arras which failed to make peace with Franceand brought to an end the English alliance with Burgundy. The Cardinalcontinued to pursue peace after Bedford's death, but was constantlyopposed by his old enemy, Gloucester who wished the war to continue.Twice the Council advised the King to confine Henry to the shores ofEngland, but, in 1437, he received a full pardon for any supposeoffences. Two years later, he left for France on a peace mission andagain the following year. Under the Cardinal's influence, the Councilreleased the captured Charles,

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Duke of Orleans: a step which furtherirritated the Duke of Gloucester and pushed him into drawing up a longlist of serious charges against Henry. The Council backed the latter'spolicies though and ignored Gloucester's personal accusations.

 

"Still, it was time for the ageing Cardinal to begin to retire frompublic life. He continued to follow events however and survived longenough to see Suffolk bring about the marriage of Henry VI to PrincessMargaret of Anjou in 1445. He finally died at Wolvesey Bishop's Palacein Winchester on 11th April 1447 and was buried in a fine chantrychapel in the Retrochoir of Winchester Cathedral. St. Swithun's Shrinewas relocated to adjoin his last resting place, with a vast legacy hehad left to the chapter there."

 

Source:http://www.britannia.com/bios/hbeaufrt.html

Henry Beaufort and Alice FitzAlan had the following child:

94.

i.

JANE BEAUFORT (daughter of Henry Beaufort and Alice FitzAlan) was born in 1391. She married EDWARD STRADLING. He was born about 1389. He died in 1451.

78.

JOHN BEAUFORT (John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born in 1404. He died on 27 May 1444.

 

Notes for John Beaufort:

 

John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, 3rd Earl of Somerset was anEnglish noble and military commander. He is my seventeenth cousin, 16times removed. John was the second son of John Beaufort, 1st Earl ofSomerset, and succeeded his elder brotherj, Henry, to become the 3rdEarl of Somerset in 1418. The young earl fought in King Henry V's1419 campaigns in France. In 1421, he accompanied the king's youngerbrother, Thomas of Lancaster, to the fighting in Anjou. Thomas waskilled at the Battle of BaugÈ and Somerset was captured. Johnremained imprisoned for 17 years, and after being ransomed, became oneof the leading English commanders in France.

 

In 1443 he was created Duke of Somerset and Earl of Kendal, made aKnight of the Garter, and appointed Captain-General of Guyenne.However he proved a poor commander. He married Margaret Beauchamp ofBletso in 1439. His death in 1444 may have been due to suicide, butsuch is untermined.

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Beaufort,_1st_Duke_of_Somerset

 

Katherine, a widow with two young daughters, first became John'smistress. Their four children, Henry, John, Thomas, and Joan, werestyled Beaufort. Due to their illegitimacy, they were barred from thesuccession to the throne, which in the end didn't matter.

 

Source:http://groups.msn.com/ALLMYTUDORShistorychat/yourwebpage5.msnw

John Beaufort had the following child:

99.

i.

MARGARET BEAUFORT (daughter of John Beaufort) was born on 31 May 1443. She died on 29 Jun 1509. She married EDMUND TUDOR. He was born about 1435. He died in Nov 1456. She married HENRY STAFFORD. She married THOMAS.

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79.

ANNE PLANTAGENET (Thomas Plantagenet, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Thomas Plantagenet, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born after 1376. She married (1) EDMUND before 1403. He died in 1403. She married (2) WILLIAM BOURCHIER on 20 Nov 1405. He died on 28 May 1420 in Troyes, England.

 

Notes for Anne Plantagenet:

 

Anne is my 16th cousin, 17 times removed.

Anne Plantagenet and William Bourchier had the following child:

100.

i.

JOHN BOURCHIER (son of William Bourchier and Anne Plantagenet) was born after 1405. He died in May 1474. He married MARY BERNERS. She died on 18 Dec 1475.

80.

JOYCE CHERLETON (Eleanor de Holland, Thomas de Holland, Edmund, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward Cherleton) was born in 1402. She died in 1445. She married JOHN DE TIBETOT. He died in 1443.

Joyce Cherleton and John de Tibetot had the following child:

101.

i.

JOYCE TIBETOT (daughter of John de Tibetot and Joyce Cherleton). She died in 1485. She married EDMUND SUTTON. He died in 1483.

81.

JOHN ABNEY (William Abney, John de Abney, William Abney, William Abney, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini, William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson). He married de Ingwardby (daughter of William de Ingwardby) about 1419.

John Abney and de Ingwardby had the following child:

102.

i.

WILLIAM ABNEY (son of John Abney and de Ingwardby).

Generation 26

82.

WILLIAM DE ROS (Beatrice Stafford, Margaret de Audley, Margaret de Clare, Joan Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Thomas de Ros). He died on 01 Sep 1414 in Belvoir. He married MARGARET FITZ ALAN DE ARUNDEL. She died on 03 Jul 1438.

 

Notes for William de Ros:

 

William de Ros is my 17th cousin, 16 times removed. He is the firstcousin, 21 times removed of my son-in-law, Steven O. Westmoreland. Heis the fourth cousin, eleven times removed to US President ThomasJefferson.

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He served as Treasurer for the Government of England 1403-1404.

 

Source:www.catorfamily.com/genealogy/aubigny.doc

William de Ros and Margaret Fitz Alan de Arundel had the following child:

103.

i.

MARGARET DE ROS (daughter of William de Ros and Margaret Fitz Alan de Arundel). She married James Audley about 1415. He was born about 1398. He died on 23 Sep 1459.

83.

MARGARET STAFFORD (Hugh Stafford, Margaret de Audley, Margaret de Clare, Joan Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Hugh Stafford, Ralph de Stafford, Edmund de Stafford). She married RALPH DE NEVILLE.

Margaret Stafford and Ralph de Neville had the following child:

104.

i.

MATILTA DE NEVILLE (daughter of Ralph de Neville and Margaret Stafford). She married FILIUS GODDARD.

84.

JOAN COURTNAY (Hugh Courtnay, Edward Courtnay, Margaret de Bohun, Elizabeth Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Hugh Courtnay, Edward Courtnay, Hugh de Courtnay). She married (1) NICHOLAS CAREW before 1446. He died in 1446. She married (2) ROBERT DE VERE after 1446.

Joan Courtnay and Nicholas Carew had the following child:

105.

i.

THOMAS CAREW (son of Nicholas Carew and Joan Courtnay). He married JOAN CARMINOW.

85.

ELIZABETH MORTIMER (Philippa Plantagenet, Lionel, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edmund Mortimer) was born after 1368. She married Henry Percy before 10 Dec 1379. He died in 1403 in Slain at Shrewsbury, England.

Elizabeth Mortimer and Henry Percy had the following children:

106.

i.

ELIZABETH PERCY (daughter of Henry Percy and Elizabeth Mortimer). She died on 26 Oct 1437. She married John de Clifford between 1403-1412. He died between 13 Mar 1421-1423 in Meaux, France.

107.

ii.

HENRY PERCY (son of Henry Percy and Elizabeth Mortimer) was born on 03 Feb 1393. He died on 22 May 1455 in Slain at St. Albans, England. He married ELEANOR NEVILLE. She died in 1463.

86.

HENRY V (Henry IV, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1

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Thorrasson,Henry IV, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 16 Sep 1387. He died on 31 Aug 1422. He married Catherine (daughter of Charles and Isabeau de BaviËre) on 02 Jun 1420 in at the parish Church of St. John. She was born on 27 Oct 1401 in Parish, France. She died on 03 Jan 1437 in London, England.

 

Notes for Henry V:

 

Henry V is my 18th cousin, 15 times removed on my mother's side of the family. On my father's side of the family, he's the fourth cousin, eight times removed of Edward Southworth, the first husband of Alice Carpenter. Edward is my 26th cousin, eight times removed. Alice was my seventh great grandmother through her second marriage, which was to Plymouth Governor William Bradford. Henry is the first cousin, 9 times removed of the husband of the stepdaughter of my sixth great grand uncle.

 

Henry continues the Plantagenet succession of Kings, being second in the Lancastrian line. King Henry V is the half 4th cousin, 9 times removed to George Washington, my 26th cousin, seven times removed.

 

Henry was an accomplished soldier: at age fourteen he fought the Welsh forces of Owen ap Glendower; at age sixteen he commanded his father's forces at the battle of Shrewsbury; and shortly after his accession he put down a major Lollard uprising and an assassination plot by nobles still loyal to Richard II.

 

He proposed to marry Catherine in 1415, demanding the old Plantagenet lands of Normandy and Anjou as his dowry. Charles VI refused and Henry declared war, opening yet another chapter in the Hundred Years' War. The French war served two purposes - to gain lands lost in previous battles and to focus attention away from any of his cousins' royal ambitions. Henry, possessed a masterful military mind, and after giving an impassioned message to his vastly outnumbered Army, they defeated the French at the Battle of Agincourt in October 1415, and by1419 had captured Normandy, Picardy and much of the Capetian stronghold of the Ile-de-France.

 

By the Treaty of Troyes in 1420, Charles VI not only accepted Henry as his son-in-law, but passed over his own son to name Henry as heir to the French crown. Had Henry lived a mere two months longer, he would have been king of both England and France.

 

Henry had prematurely aged due to living the hard life of a soldier. He became seriously ill and died after returning from yet another French campaign; Catherine had bore his only son while he was away, and Henry died, having never seen the child.

 

The historian Rafael Holinshed, in 'Chronicles of England,' summed up Henry's reign as such: "This Henry was a king, of life without spot, a prince whom all men loved, and of none disdained, a captain against whom fortune never frowned, nor mischance once spurned, whose people both loved and obeyed that he left no offense unpunished, nor friendship unrewarded; a terror to rebels, and suppressor of sedition, his virtues notable, his qualities most praiseworthy."

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon35.html

 

 

Notes for Catherine:

 

Just about one year prior to Catherine's birth, on October 25, 1400,Geofrey Chaucer English author, poet, philosopher, bureaucrat(courtier), and a diplomat, died in London.

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Although he wrote manyworks he is best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative "TheCanterbury Tales."

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_Chaucer

 

"Katherine of Valois was the daughter of King Charles VI of France andhis wife Isabelle of Bavaria. She was born at the Hotel of St. Pol (aroyal palace in Paris) on October 27, 1401. Early on there had been adiscussion of marrying her to the son of Henry IV, but the King diedbefore negotiations could begin. The new king, Henry V, also proposedthe match, but demanded a large dowry and acknowledgement of his rightto the throne of France."

 

Source:http://tudorhistory.org/topics/owen.html

 

"Catherine of Valois was crowned Queen of England at Westminster Abbeyin February, 1421. The only issue of Catherine and Henry, the futureHenry VI of England, was born on 6 December 1421. Then Henry Vsuddenly died on 31 August 1422.

 

"Catherine was given Wallingford Castle, but effectively exiled fromcourt, suspicion falling on her nationality. The regents kept her awayfrom her child, and she turned for comfort to Owen Tudor, a Welshcourtier, who would become the founding father of the Tudor dynasty.In 1428 Parliament reacted to the rumors about this relationship byforbidding Catherine from marrying without consent of the king and thecouncil. Historians are divided on whether Catherine had alreadymarried Owen Tudor before that Act of Parliament, or whether theymarried secretly in 1429, or whether they married at all (some havesuggested that this was a morganatic marriage). Although Catherine wasforbidden to marry, there was a general lack of interest in her on thepart of the authorities.

 

"In any case, she gave birth to at least five of Owen Tudor'schildren. One daughter died in infancy and another daughter and threesons survived. One son Owen became a monk. Their other two sons,Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke ofBedford, were to play an important role in the future of the Englishmonarchy.

 

"Catherine died on January 3, 1437, in London, and was buried inWestminster Abbey. Her husband or lover, Owen Tudor, lived on until1461, when he was executed by the Yorkists following the Battle ofMortimer's Cross. Their sons were given earldoms by King Henry VIafter Catherine's death. Edmund would become the father of the futureKing Henry VII of England."

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catherine_of_Valois

Henry V and Catherine had the following child:

i.

HENRY VI (son of Henry V and Catherine) was born on 06 Dec 1421 in Windsor Castle. He died on 21 May 1471 in Tower of London. He married Margaret in 1445. She was born on 23 Mar 1430. She died on 25 Aug 1482.

 

Notes for Henry VI:

 

King Henry VI is my 19th cousin, 14 times removed on my mother's side of the family. On my father's side, he is the fifth cousin, seven times removed of Edward Southworth, the first husband of Alice Carpenter. Alice is my seventh great grandmother through her second husband, Governor William Bradford of Plymouth Colony. Henry was a Plantagent King, the last in the Lancastrian Line.

 

Henry VI was the only child of Henry V and Catherine of Valois, born on December 6, 1421. He became King of England on August 31, 1422, when he was just nine months old! He married Margaret of Anjou in 1445; the

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union produced one son, Edward, who was killed in battle one day before Henry's execution. Henry came to the throne as an infant after the early death of his father; in name, he was king of both England and France, but a protector ruled each realm. He was educated by Richard Beauchamp, beginning in 1428. The whole of Henry's reign was involved with retaining both of his crowns — in the end, he held neither.

 

Hostilities in France continued, but momentum swung to the French with the appearance of Joan of Arc in 1428. The seventeen year old was instrumental in rescuing the French Dauphin Charles in 1429; he was crowned at Reims as Charles VII, and she was burned at the stake as a heretic. English losses in Brittany (1449), Normandy (1450) and Gascony (1453) led to the conclusion of the Hundred Years' War in1453. Henry lost his claim to all French soil except for Calais.

 

The Wars of the Roses began in full during Henry's reign. In 1453, Henry had an attack of the hereditary mental illness that plagued the French house of Valois; Richard, Duke of York , was made protector of the realm during the illness. His wife Margaret, a rather headstrong woman, alienated Richard upon Henry's recovery and Richard responded by attacking and defeating the queen's forces at St. Albans in 1455. Richard captured the king in 1460, and forced him to acknowledge Richard as heir to the crown. Henry escaped, joined the Lancastrian forces and attacked at Towton in March 1461, only to be defeated by the Yorks. Henry's son, Edward IV , was proclaimed king; Margaret and Henry were exiled to Scotland. They were captured in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London until 1470. Henry was briefly restored to power in September 1470. Edward , Prince of Wales , died after his final victory at Tewkesbury on May 20, 1471 and Henry returned to the Tower. The last Lancastrian king was murdered the following day. The terms to describe the death can be interchanged between murdered and executed.

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon36.html

87.

HUMPHREY (Henry IV, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Henry IV, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 03 Oct 1390. He married (1) JACQUELINE (daughter of William) before 07 Mar 1423. He married (2) ELEANOR COBHAM (daughter of Reginald Cobham) in 1428. She died in 1454 in Peel Castle, Isle of Man, as a prisoner.

Humphrey and Eleanor Cobham had the following children:

108.

i.

ANTIGONE (daughter of Humphrey and Eleanor Cobham) was born before 1428. She married Henry Grey on 03 Jan 1435. He was born about 1419. He died on 13 Jan 1450.

ii.

ARTHUR (son of Humphrey and Eleanor Cobham) was born before 1428.

88.

MARY DE FERRERS (Joan Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Robert de Ferrers) was born before 1394. She died on 25 Jan 1458. She married RALPH NEVILLE. He died on 15 Jan 1458.

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Mary de Ferrers and Ralph Neville had the following children:

109.

i.

JOHN NEVILLE (son of Ralph Neville and Mary de Ferrers). He died on 17 Mar 1482. He married ELIZABETH NEWMARCH.

110.

ii.

CECILY NEVILLE (daughter of Ralph Neville and Mary de Ferrers). She married RICHARD PLANTAGENET. He was born on 21 Sep 1411. He died on 30 Dec 1460.

89.

RALPH NEVILLE (Joan Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Ralph de Neville). He died on 15 Jan 1458. He married MARY DE FERRERS. She was born before 1394. She died on 25 Jan 1458. He married JOAN BEAUFORT.

Ralph Neville and Mary de Ferrers had the following children:

109.

i.

JOHN NEVILLE (son of Ralph Neville and Mary de Ferrers). He died on 17 Mar 1482. He married ELIZABETH NEWMARCH.

110.

ii.

CECILY NEVILLE (daughter of Ralph Neville and Mary de Ferrers). She married RICHARD PLANTAGENET. He was born on 21 Sep 1411. He died on 30 Dec 1460.

 

 

Notes for Joan Beaufort:

 

"Katherine, a widow with two young daughters, first became John?smistress. Their four children, Henry, John, Thomas, and Joan, werestyled Beaufort due to their illegitimacy and barred from thesuccession to the throne, which in the end didn?t matter."

 

Source:http://groups.msn.com/ALLMYTUDORShistorychat/yourwebpage5.msnw

90.

ELEANOR NEVILLE (Joan Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Ralph de Neville). She died in 1463. She married HENRY PERCY. He was born on 03 Feb 1393. He died on 22 May 1455 in Slain at St. Albans, England.

Eleanor Neville and Henry Percy had the following child:

133.

i.

HENRY PERCY (son of Henry Percy and Eleanor Neville) was born on 25 Jul 1421. He died on 29 Mar 1461 in Slain at the Battle of Towton Field. He married Eleanor Poynings (daughter of Richard Poynings) about 25 Jun 1435. She was born about 1422. She died in Feb 1484.

91.

EDWARD DE NEVILLE (Joan Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Ralph de Neville) was born in 1417. He died in 1467. He married (1) ELIZABETH DE BEAUCHAMP (daughter of Richard de Beauchamp and Isabel Despenser) before 18 Oct 1424. She was born on 16 Dec 1415. She died on 18 Jun 1447. He married

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Generation 26

(2) CATHARINE HOWARD (daughter of Robert Howard and Margaret Mowbray) on 15 Oct 1448. She was born in 1414. She died on 18 Oct 1476.

Edward de Neville and Catharine Howard had the following child:

114.

i.

KATHERINE NEVILLE (daughter of Edward de Neville and Catharine Howard) was born in 1460. She married ROBERT TANFIELD. He died after 1505.

92.

JOAN BEAUFORT (John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey). She married James Stuart on 02 Feb 1423 in Priory Church, St Mary Overy, Southwark, Scotland.

Joan Beaufort and James Stuart had the following children:

i.

MARGARET STUART (daughter of James Stuart and Joan Beaufort).

115.

ii.

JAMES (son of James Stuart and Joan Beaufort).

iii.

ALEXANDER STUART (son of James Stuart and Joan Beaufort).

iv.

ELEANOR STUART (daughter of James Stuart and Joan Beaufort).

v.

ANABELLA STUART (daughter of James Stuart and Joan Beaufort).

vi.

MARY STUART (daughter of James Stuart and Joan Beaufort).

116.

vii.

JOAN STUART (daughter of James Stuart and Joan Beaufort) was born about 1426. She died after 1486. She married JAMES DOUGLAS. He died in 1493.

93.

EDMUND BEAUFORT (John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born about 1406. He died on 22 May 1455 in St. Albans, where he was slain. He married Eleanor Beauchamp (daughter of Richard Beauchamp) about 1435. She was born in 1407 in Eddgenoch, County Warwick. She died on 06 Mar 1467.

Edmund Beaufort and Eleanor Beauchamp had the following child:

117.

i.

ELEANOR BEAUFORT (daughter of Edmund Beaufort and Eleanor Beauchamp) was born between 1435-1455. She died on 16 Aug 1501. She married (1) JAMES BUTLER between 1440-1461. He was born about 1420. He died about 1461. She married (2) ROBERT SPENCER before 1470. He was born about 1435. He died after 1502.

94.

JANE BEAUFORT (Henry Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar

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Generation 26

Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Henry Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born in 1391. She married EDWARD STRADLING. He was born about 1389. He died in 1451.

Jane Beaufort and Edward Stradling had the following child:

118.

i.

HENRY STRADLING (son of Edward Stradling and Jane Beaufort) was born in 1423. He died in 1476. He married ELIZABETH HERBERT. She was born about 1427 in Raglan, Montmouthshire, England.

99.

MARGARET BEAUFORT (John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born on 31 May 1443. She died on 29 Jun 1509. She married EDMUND TUDOR. He was born about 1435. He died in Nov 1456. She married HENRY STAFFORD. She married THOMAS.

 

Notes for Margaret Beaufort:

 

Margaret was a descendant of King Edward III. She is my 18th cousin,15 times removed.

 

Source:http://tudorhistory.org/henry7/

 

"During the Middle Ages ladies were associated with the Order (of theGarter), although unlike today they did not enjoy full membership. Oneof the last medieval ladies to be honoured was Lady Margaret Beaufort,mother of Henry VII and grandmother of Henry VIII. After her death in1509 the Order remained exclusively male, except for reigning queensas Sovereign of the Order, until 1901 when Edward VII made QueenAlexandra a lady of the Order."

 

Source:http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/page490.asp

Margaret Beaufort and Edmund Tudor had the following child:

125.

i.

HENRY (son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort) was born on 28 Jan 1457 in Pembroke Castle in Wales. He died on 21 Apr 1509. He married Elizabeth Plantagenet (daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville) on 18 Jan 1486 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England. She was born on 11 Feb 1466 in Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, England. She died on 11 Feb 1503.

100.

JOHN BOURCHIER (Anne Plantagenet, Thomas Plantagenet, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,William Bourchier) was born after 1405. He died in May 1474. He married MARY BERNERS. She died on 18 Dec 1475.

 

Notes for John Bourchier:

 

John is my 17th cousin, 16 times removed.

John Bourchier and Mary Berners had the following child:

126.

i.

HUMPHREY BOURCHIER (son of John Bourchier and Mary Berners). He died on

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14 Apr 1471 in Slain at the Battle of Barnet. He married ELIZABETH TYLNEY. She died on 04 Apr 1497.

101.

JOYCE TIBETOT (Joyce Cherleton, Eleanor de Holland, Thomas de Holland, Edmund, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,John de Tibetot). She died in 1485. She married EDMUND SUTTON. He died in 1483.

Joyce Tibetot and Edmund Sutton had the following child:

127.

i.

JOHN SUTTON (son of Edmund Sutton and Joyce Tibetot). He married MARGARET CHAROLL.

102.

WILLIAM ABNEY (John Abney, William Abney, John de Abney, William Abney, William Abney, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini of Abney, Robert Albini, William Albini, William Albini, William Albini, Neil de St. Sauveur, Nigel de St. Sauveur, Roger de St. Sauveur, Neil, Richard de St. Sauveur, Malahulc Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson).

William Abney had the following child:

128.

i.

JOHN ABNEY (son of William Abney). He died on 01 Dec 1505. He married MARGARET.

Generation 27

103.

MARGARET DE ROS (William de Ros, Beatrice Stafford, Margaret de Audley, Margaret de Clare, Joan Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,William de Ros, Thomas de Ros). She married James Audley about 1415. He was born about 1398. He died on 23 Sep 1459.

Margaret De Ros and James Audley had the following child:

129.

i.

ANNE TUCHET DE AUDLEY (daughter of James Audley and Margaret De Ros). She married THOMAS DUTTON. He died on 23 Sep 1459.

104.

MATILTA DE NEVILLE (Margaret Stafford, Hugh Stafford, Margaret de Audley, Margaret de Clare, Joan Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Ralph de Neville). She married FILIUS GODDARD.

Matilta de Neville and Filius Goddard had the following child:

130.

i.

AGNES GODDARD (daughter of Filius Goddard and Matilta de Neville). She married BRYON STAPLETON.

105.

THOMAS CAREW (Joan Courtnay, Hugh Courtnay, Edward Courtnay, Margaret de Bohun, Elizabeth Plantagenet, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf,

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Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Nicholas Carew). He married JOAN CARMINOW.

Thomas Carew and Joan Carminow had the following child:

131.

i.

NICHOLAS CAREW (son of Thomas Carew and Joan Carminow). He died on 06 Dec 1470. He married MARGARET DINHAM. She died on 13 Dec 1470.

106.

ELIZABETH PERCY (Elizabeth Mortimer, Philippa Plantagenet, Lionel, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Henry Percy). She died on 26 Oct 1437. She married John de Clifford between 1403-1412. He died between 13 Mar 1421-1423 in Meaux, France.

Elizabeth Percy and John de Clifford had the following child:

132.

i.

THOMAS DE CLIFFORD (son of John de Clifford and Elizabeth Percy) was born on 26 Mar 1414. He died on 22 May 1455 in Slain at St. Albans, England. He married JOAN DACRE.

107.

HENRY PERCY (Eleanor Neville, Joan Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Henry Percy) was born on 03 Feb 1393. He died on 22 May 1455 in Slain at St. Albans, England. He married ELEANOR NEVILLE. She died in 1463.

Henry Percy and Eleanor Neville had the following child:

133.

i.

HENRY PERCY (son of Henry Percy and Eleanor Neville) was born on 25 Jul 1421. He died on 29 Mar 1461 in Slain at the Battle of Towton Field. He married Eleanor Poynings (daughter of Richard Poynings) about 25 Jun 1435. She was born about 1422. She died in Feb 1484.

108.

ANTIGONE (Humphrey, Henry IV, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Humphrey, Henry IV, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born before 1428. She married Henry Grey on 03 Jan 1435. He was born about 1419. He died on 13 Jan 1450.

 

Notes for Antigone:

 

Antigone is my 18th cousin, fifteen times removed. She is the fourthgreat granddaughter of English King Edward I, known as Longshanks.

Antigone and Henry Grey had the following child:

134.

i.

ELIZABETH GREY (daughter of Henry Grey and Antigone) was born about 1440. She died after 1501 in County Salop. She married Roger Kynaston in 1465. He was born about 1430. He died in 1496.

109.

JOHN NEVILLE (Ralph Neville, Ralph Neville, Joan Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward,

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Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Ralph Neville, Ralph de Neville). He died on 17 Mar 1482. He married ELIZABETH NEWMARCH.

John Neville and Elizabeth Newmarch had the following child:

135.

i.

JANE NEVILLE (daughter of John Neville and Elizabeth Newmarch). She married William Gascoigne about 1459. He died in 1464.

110.

CECILY NEVILLE (Ralph Neville, Ralph Neville, Joan Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Ralph Neville, Ralph de Neville). She married RICHARD PLANTAGENET. He was born on 21 Sep 1411. He died on 30 Dec 1460.

 

Notes for Cecily Neville:

 

Cecily Neville is my 18th cousin, three times removed.

 

 

Notes for Richard Plantagenet:

 

My relationship to Richard is through his wife, Cecily Neville, who ismy 18th cousin, three times removed.

 

"Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, was a member of the Englishroyal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end ofthe Hundred Years' War, and in England during Henry VI's madness. Hisconflict with Henry VI was a leading factor in the political upheavalof mid-fifteenth-century England, and a major cause of the Wars of theRoses. Although he never became king, he was the father of Edward IVand Richard III."

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Plantagenet%2C_3rd_Duke_of_York

Cecily Neville and Richard Plantagenet had the following children:

136.

i.

ANNE (daughter of Richard Plantagenet and Cecily Neville) was born on 10 Aug 1439. She died on 14 Jan 1476. She married Henry Holland in 1447. He was born in 1430. He died in 1475.

137.

ii.

EDWARD IV (son of Richard Plantagenet and Cecily Neville) was born on 28 Apr 1442. He died on 09 Apr 1483 in Westminster, London, England. He married Elizabeth Woodville (daughter of Richard Wydevill and Jacquetta de Luxembourg) on 01 May 1464. She was born about 1437 in Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire County, England. She died on 08 Jun 1492.

iii.

EDMUND (son of Richard Plantagenet and Cecily Neville) was born on 17 May 1443.

 

Notes for Edmund:

 

"In 1451, Edmund's father, who held the title of Lord Lieutenant ofIreland, appointed Edmund as Lord Chancellor of Ireland. As Edmund wasunderage, the duties of the position were held by Deputy Chancellors.His first Deputy Chancellor was Edmund Oldhall, Bishop of Meath. Hisbrother Sir William

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Oldhall was Chamberlain to the Duke of York andwas likely behind that appointment. He acted as de facto Chancelloruntil 1454.

 

"Goldhall was replaced by John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury who alsoheld the office of Lord High Steward of Ireland. He would continueserving as the de facto Chancellor until his death at the Battle ofNorthampton (10 July 1460).

 

"His appointment and those of his Deputies were acknowledged by theParliament of Ireland which at this time first asserted itsindependence. The Parliament declared that Ireland held separatelegislature from the Kingdom of England and its subjects were onlysubject to the laws and statutes of "the Lords Spiritual and Temporaland Commons of Ireland, freely admitted and accepted in theirParliaments and Great Councils".

 

"According to Parliamentary decisions during his term, the Irishsubjects were only bound to answer writs by the Great Seal of Ireland,held by the Lord Chancellors. Any officer attempting to enforce therule of decrees from England would lose all of his property in Irelandand be subject to a fine.

 

"The House of York in Ireland had won the support of ThomasFitzGerald, 7th Earl of Kildare and James FitzGerald, 6th Earl ofDesmond. Several allies of the FitzGeralds followed them in theirloyalties. On the other hand the House of Lancaster found its mainIrish supporter in the person of James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormonde.

 

"Edmund died at the age of seventeen after the Battle of Wakefield(December 30, 1460) during the Wars of the Roses. He had fought in thebattle at the side of his father.

 

"By the account given by Roderick O'Flanagan in his 1870 biography ofthe Edmund:

 

"Urged by his tutor, a priest named Robert Aspell, he was no sooneraware that the field was lost than he sought safety by flight. Theirmovements were intercepted by the Lancastrians, and Lord Clifford madehim prisoner, but did not then know his rank. Struck with the richnessof his armour and equipment, Lord Clifford demanded his name. 'Savehim,' implored the Chaplain; 'for he is the Prince's son, andperadventure may do you good hereafter.'

 

"This was an impolitic appeal, for it denoted hopes of the House ofYork being again in the ascendant, which the Lancastrians, flushedwith recent victory, regarded as impossible. The ruthless noble sworea solemn oath:- 'Thy father,' said he, 'slew mine; and so will I dothee and all thy kin;' and with these words be rushed on the haplessyouth, and drove his dagger to the hilt in his heart. Thus fell, atthe early age of seventeen, Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Rutland, LordChancellor of Ireland."

 

"Edmund was thus executed on the orders of the Lancastrian LordClifford, or by some accounts, by Lord Clifford himself. His head wasdisplayed on the gates of York, England, along with those of hisfather and of his uncle, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury. [1]

 

"In Shakespeare's play, Henry VI, part 3, Rutland is inaccuratelyportrayed as a small child who is brutally murdered by Clifford afterpleading for his life."

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Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund%2C_Earl_of_Rutland

iv.

ELIZABETH (daughter of Richard Plantagenet and Cecily Neville) was born on 22 Apr 1444 in Rouen, Normady. She died after 1503 in Wingfield, Suffolk, England. She married JOHN DE LA POLE. He was born on 27 Sep 1442. He died between 29 Oct 1491-27 Oct 1492.

v.

MARGARET (daughter of Richard Plantagenet and Cecily Neville) was born on 03 May 1446 in Fotheringhay LCastle, Northhamptonshire, England. She died on 23 Nov 1503 in Mechelen in the Low Counties.

138.

vi.

GEORGE (son of Richard Plantagenet and Cecily Neville) was born on 21 Oct 1449 in Dublin, Ireland. He died on 18 Feb 1478 in Tower of London, England. He married Isabella Neville on 11 Jul 1469 in France.

vii.

RICHARD III (son of Richard Plantagenet and Cecily Neville) was born on 02 Oct 1452. He died on 22 Aug 1485 in Battle of Bosworth Field. He married ANNE NEVILLE.

 

Notes for Richard III:

 

Richard III, the eleventh child of Richard, Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, was born October 2, 1452. He was created third Duke of Gloucester at the coronation of his brother, Edward IV. Richard had three children: one each of an illegitimate son and daughter, and one son by his first wife, Anne Neville, widow of Henry IV's son Edward. Richard III is my 19th cousin, 14 times removed.

 

The year following his birth, German inventor, Johann Gutenburg, developed the printing press and printed the first Bible in 1453.

 

Source:http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0822203.html

 

Richard's reign gained an importance out of proportion to its length. He was crowned King on July 6, 1483. He was the last of the Plantagenet dynasty, which had ruled England since 1154; he was the last English king to die on the battlefield; his death in 1485 is generally accepted between the medieval and modern ages in England; and he is credited with the responsibility for several murders: Henry VI , Henry's son Edward, his brother Clarence, and his nephews Edward and Richard.

 

Richard's power was immense, and upon the death of Edward IV , he positioned himself to seize the throne from the young Edward V. He feared a continuance of internal feuding should Edward V, under the influence of his mother's Woodville relatives, remain on the throne (most of this feared conflict would have undoubtedly come from Richard). The old nobility, also fearful of a strengthened Woodville clan, assembled and declared the succession of Edward V as illegal, due to weak evidence suggesting that Edward IV's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was bigamous, thereby rendering his sons illegitimate and ineligible as heirs to the crown. Edward V and his younger brother, Richard of York, were imprisoned in the Tower of London, never again to emerge alive. Richard of Gloucester was crowned Richard III on July 6, 1483.

 

Four months into his reign he crushed a rebellion led by his former assistant

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Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, who sought the installation of Henry Tudor, a diluted Lancaster, to the throne. The rebellion was crushed, but Tudor gathered troops and attacked Richard's forces on August 22, 1485, at the battle of Bosworth Field. The last major battle of the Wars of the Roses, Bosworth Field became the death place of Richard III. Historians have been noticeably unkind to Richard, based on purely circumstantial evidence; Shakespeare portrays him as a complete monster in his play, Richard III. One thing is for certain, however: Richard's defeat and the cessation of the Wars of the Roses allowed the stability England required to heal, consolidate, and push into the modern era.

 

Source:http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon39.html 

 

 

News reports in February 2013 announced the discovery of the bones of King Richard III. Here is the report:

 

 

Experts find remains of England's King Richard III

 

An undated photo was made available by the University of Leicester, England, Monday of the remains found underneath a car park last September at the Grey Friars excavation in Leicester, which have been declared Monday "beyond reasonable doubt" to be the long lost remains of England's King Richard III, missing for 500 years. Richard was immortalized in a play by Shakespeare as a hunchbacked usurper who left a trail of bodies — including those of his two young nephews, murdered in the Tower of London — on his way to the throne. AP Photo/ University of Leicester

 

 

By JILL LAWLESS Associated Press

Published: 2/4/2013  10:38 AM

Last Modified: 2/4/2013  10:38 AM

 

LEICESTER, England — He wore the English crown, but he ended up defeated, humiliated and reviled.

 

Now things are looking up for King Richard III. Scientists announced Monday that they had found the monarch's 528-year-old remains under a parking lot in the city of Leicester — a discovery that will move him from a pauper's grave to a royal tomb and that fans say could potentially restore the reputation of a much-maligned king.

 

"We could end up rewriting a little bit of history in a big way," said Lin Foxhall, head of the school of archaeology at the University of Leicester, which conducted the research.

 

On Monday the researchers announced that tests on a battle-scarred skeleton unearthed in the central England city last year prove "beyond reasonable doubt" that it is the king, who died at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, and whose remains have been missing for centuries.

 

"Richard III, the last Plantagenet King of England, has been found," said the university's deputy registrar, Richard Taylor, describing the find as "truly astonishing."

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Few monarchs have seen their reputations decline as much after death as Richard III. He ruled England between 1483 and 1485, during the decades-long tussle over the throne known as the Wars of the Roses, which pitted two wings of the ruling Plantagenet dynasty — York and Lancaster — against one another.

 

His brief reign saw liberal reforms, including the introduction of the right to bail and the lifting of restrictions on books and printing presses.

 

But his rule was challenged, and he was defeated and killed by the army of Henry Tudor, who took the throne as King Henry VII and ended the Plantagenet line.

 

Death was just the start of Richard's problems. Historians writing under the victorious Tudors comprehensively trashed his reputation, accusing him of myriad crimes — most famously, the murder of the "Princes in the Tower," the two sons of his elder brother, King Edward IV.

 

William Shakespeare indelibly depicted Richard as a hunchbacked usurper who left a trail of bodies on his way to the throne before dying in battle, shouting "My kingdom for a horse."

 

That view was repeated by many historians, and Richard remains a villain in the popular imagination. But others argue that the image is unfair, and say Richard's reputation was smeared by his Tudor successors.

 

Philippa Langley of the Richard III Society — which seeks to restore the late king's reputation — said for centuries Richard's story had been told by others, many of them hostile.

 

She hopes a new surge of interest, and new evidence from the skeleton about how the king lived and died — and how he was mistreated after death — will help restore his reputation.

 

"A wind of change is blowing, one that will seek out the truth about the real Richard III," she said.

 

Langley, who helped launch the search for the king, said she could scarcely believe her quest had paid off.

 

"Everyone thought that I was mad," she said. "It's not the easiest pitch in the world, to look for a king under a council car park."

 

The location of Richard's body was unknown for centuries. Records say he was buried by the Franciscan monks of Grey Friars at their church in Leicester, 100 miles (160 kilometers) north of London. The church was closed and dismantled after King Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries in 1538, and its location eventually was forgotten by most local residents.

 

But last year a team led by University of Leicester archaeologist Richard Buckley identified a possible location of the grave through map regression analysis, starting with a current map and analyzing earlier maps to discover what had changed and not changed. Ground-penetrating radar was employed to find the best places to start digging.

 

The team began excavating in a parking lot last August. Within a week they

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had located thick walls and the remains of tiled floors. Soon after, they found human remains — the skeleton of an adult male who appeared to have died in battle.

 

He had been buried unceremoniously, without coffin or shroud — plausible for a despised and defeated enemy.

 

Researchers could scarcely believe their luck, and set out to conduct a battery of scientific tests, including radiocarbon dating to determine the skeleton's age, to see whether, against the odds, they really had found the king.

 

They found the skeleton belonged to a man aged between his late 20s and late 30s who died between 1455 and 1540. Richard was 32 when he died in 1485.

 

Osteologist Jo Appleby, a lecturer in human bioarchaeology at Leicester, said study of the bones provided "a highly convincing case for identification of Richard III."

 

Appleby said the 10 injuries to the body were inflicted by weapons like swords, daggers and halberds and were consistent with accounts of Richard being struck down in battle — his helmet knocked from his head — before his body was stripped naked and flung over the back of a horse in disgrace.

 

She said some scars, including a knife wound to the buttock, bore the hallmarks of "humiliation injuries" inflicted after death.

 

The remains also displayed signs of scoliosis, a form of spinal curvature, consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard's appearance, though not the withered arm Shakespeare describes him as having.

 

DNA from the skeleton matched a sample taken from Michael Ibsen, a distant living relative of Richard's sister. The project's lead geneticist, Turi King, said Ibsen, a Canadian carpenter living in London, shares with the skeleton a rare strain of mitochondrial DNA. She said combined with the archaeological evidence, that left little doubt the skeleton belonged to Richard.

 

Ibsen said he was "stunned" to discover he was related to the king — he is a 17th great-grand-nephew of Richard's older sister.

 

"It's difficult to digest," he said.

 

The researchers said their findings had not yet been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, but soon would be. Archaeologist Mike Pitts, editor of British Archaeology magazine, said he found the evidence persuasive.

 

"I don't think there is any question — it is Richard III," said Pitts, who was not affiliated with the research team.

 

He said it was one of the most exciting archaeological discoveries in ages.

 

"The identification of the king is just the very beginning of a whole range of new ideas and research that will change the way we view this period of history," he said.

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The discovery is a boon for the city of Leicester, which has bought a building next to the parking lot to serve as a visitor center and museum.

 

On Monday, the king's skeleton lay in a glass box in a meeting room within the university library. It was a browned, fragile-looking thing, its skull pocked with injuries, missing its feet — which scientists say were disturbed sometime after burial — and with a pronounced s-shape to the spine.

 

Soon the remains will be moved to an undisclosed secure location, and next year Richard will, at last, get a king's burial, interred with pomp and ceremony in Leicester Cathedral.

 

It is a day Langley, of the Richard III Society, has dreamed of seeing.

 

"We have searched for him, we have found him — it is now time to honor him," she said.

 

By JILL LAWLESS Associated Press 

 

Copyright 2013 World Publishing Co. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

 

Other Tulsa World US & World Stories

113.

HENRY PERCY (Eleanor Neville, Joan Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Henry Percy, Henry Percy) was born on 25 Jul 1421. He died on 29 Mar 1461 in Slain at the Battle of Towton Field. He married Eleanor Poynings (daughter of Richard Poynings) about 25 Jun 1435. She was born about 1422. She died in Feb 1484.

 

Notes for Henry Percy:

 

Sir Henry Percy, the 3rd Earl of Northumberland, is my 18th cousin, 15times removed. He is the 17th great grandson of Eystein GlumraIvarsson, who is my 32nd great grandson. Eystein Glumra Ivarsson isour ancestor in common.

 

"His maternal uncles included Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury.His maternal aunts included Cecily Neville. Percy was first cousin to(among others) Edward IV of England, Margaret of Burgundy, George,Duke of Clarence and Richard III of England. He was thus closelyrelated to the House of York.

 

"Percy however followed his father in swearing allegiance to the Houseof Lancaster. On 1460-12-30, Percy is known to have fought on theLancastrian side at the Battle of Wakefield. He commanded theLancastrian van at the Battle of Towton, where he was killed.

 

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Percy%2C_3rd_Earl_of_Northumberland

Henry Percy and Eleanor Poynings had the following children:

166.

i.

MARGARET PERCY (daughter of Henry Percy and Eleanor Poynings) was born about 1447. She married WILLIAM GASCOIGNE.

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ii.

HENRY PERCY (son of Henry Percy and Eleanor Poynings) was born about 1449. He died on 28 Apr 1489.

114.

KATHERINE NEVILLE (Edward de Neville, Joan Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward de Neville, Ralph de Neville) was born in 1460. She married ROBERT TANFIELD. He died after 1505.

Katherine Neville and Robert Tanfield had the following children:

i.

WILLIAM TANFIELD (son of Robert Tanfield and Katherine Neville).

144.

ii.

WILLIAM TANFIELD (son of Robert Tanfield and Katherine Neville) was born in 1489. He died in 1529.

115.

JAMES (Joan Beaufort, John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,James Stuart).

James had the following children:

i.

MARGARET STEWART (daughter of James). She married WILLIAM CRICHTON.

ii.

MARY STEWART (daughter of James). She married Thomas Boyd in 1467. He died in 1472.

iii.

JAMES III STEWART (son of James) was born about 1452.

iv.

ALEXANDER STEWART (son of James) was born about 1454. He died on 07 Aug 1485. He married CECILY PLANTAGENET. She was born on 20 Mar 1469 in Westminster Palace, London, England. She died on 24 Aug 1507.

v.

DAVID STEWART (son of James) was born between 1456-1457.

 

Notes for David Stewart:

 

David Steward, my 20th cousin, 13 times removed, was born close to thetime of the 1456 publication of the 1,300 page Gutenberg Bible(completed on Auguat 24, 1456).

 

"It is a printed version of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Biblethat was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany in thefifteenth century. Although it is not, as often thought, the firstbook to be printed by Gutenberg's new movable type system[1], it ishis major work, and has iconic status as the start of the "GutenbergRevolution" and the 'Age of the Printed Book'."

 

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gutenberg_Bible

116.

JOAN STUART (Joan Beaufort, John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert,

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Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,James Stuart) was born about 1426. She died after 1486. She married JAMES DOUGLAS. He died in 1493.

Joan Stuart and James Douglas had the following child:

145.

i.

JOHN DOUGLAS (son of James Douglas and Joan Stuart) was born before 1466. He died in 1513. He married JANET CRICHTON. She died after 1514.

117.

ELEANOR BEAUFORT (Edmund Beaufort, John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edmund Beaufort, John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Henry II, Geoffrey) was born between 1435-1455. She died on 16 Aug 1501. She married (1) JAMES BUTLER between 1440-1461. He was born about 1420. He died about 1461. She married (2) ROBERT SPENCER before 1470. He was born about 1435. He died after 1502.

Eleanor Beaufort and Robert Spencer had the following child:

146.

i.

MARGARET SPENCER (daughter of Robert Spencer and Eleanor Beaufort) was born about 1472. She married Thomas Cary (son of William Cary and Alice Fulford) about 1490. He was born in 1455. He died in 1500.

118.

HENRY STRADLING (Jane Beaufort, Henry Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edward Stradling) was born in 1423. He died in 1476. He married ELIZABETH HERBERT. She was born about 1427 in Raglan, Montmouthshire, England.

Henry Stradling and Elizabeth Herbert had the following child:

147.

i.

THOMAS STRADLING (son of Henry Stradling and Elizabeth Herbert) was born in 1454. He died in 1480. He married JANET MATHEW.

125.

HENRY (Margaret Beaufort, John Beaufort, John, Edward III, Edward, Edward I, Henry III, John, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Louis, Louis, Philippe, Henry, Robert, Adelaide of Poitou, Gerloc, Ganger Rolf, Ragnvald I Eysteinsson, Eystein Glumra Ivarsson, Ivar Halfdansson, Halfdan Vanha Sveidasson, Sveidi Svidrasson, Svidri Heytsson, Heiti Gorsson, Gor1 Thorrasson,Edmund Tudor, Owen ap Maredudd ap Tudur) was born on 28 Jan 1457 in Pembroke Castle in Wales. He died on 21 Apr 1509. He married Elizabeth Plantagenet (daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville) on 18 Jan 1486 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England. She was born on 11 Feb 1466 in Westminster Palace, Westminster, London, England. She died on 11 Feb 1503.

 

Notes for Henry:

 

This King Henry is the 18th cousin, 15 times removed to me. He wasthe first in the line of the Kings of the House of Tudor. Henry VII,who was son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort, was born January28, 1457. Henry married Elizabeth of York (Elizabeth Plantagenet) in1486, who bore him four children: Arthur, Henry, Margaret and Mary.Henry died in 1509 after reigning 24 years. Their son, Henry VIII wasthe brother-in-law of William Carey through Henry's second of sixwives, Anne Boylene. William is my 21st cousin, twelve

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times removed.

 

Henry descended from John of Gaunt, through the latter's illicitaffair with Catherine Swynford; although he was a Lancastrian, hegained the throne through personal battle. The Lancastrian victory atthe Battle of Bosworth in 1485 left Richard III slain in the field,York ambitions routed and Henry proclaimed king. From the onset of hisreign, Henry was determined to bring order to England after 85 yearsof civil war. His marriage to Elizabeth of York combined both theLancaster and York factions within the Tudor line, eliminating furtherdiscord in regards to succession. He faced two insurrections duringhis reign, each centered around "pretenders" who claimed a closerdynastic link to the Plantagenets than Henry. Lambert Simnel posed asthe Earl of Warwick, but his army was defeated and he was eventuallypardoned and forced to work in the king's kitchen. Perkin Warbeckposed as Richard of York, Edward V's younger brother (and co-prisonerin the Tower of London); Warbeck's support came from the continent,and after repeated invasion attempts, Henry had him imprisoned andexecuted.

 

Henry greatly strengthened the monarchy by employing many politicalinnovations to outmaneuver the nobility. The household staff rosebeyond mere servitude: Henry eschewed public appearances, therefore,staff members were the few persons Henry saw on a regular basis. Hecreated the Committee of the Privy Council ,a forerunner of the moderncabinet) as an executive advisory board; he established the Court ofthe Star Chamber to increase royal involvement in civil and criminalcases; and as an alternative to a revenue tax disbursement fromParliament, he imposed forced loans and grants on the nobility.Henry's mistrust of the nobility derived from his experiences in theWars of the Roses - a majority remained dangerously neutral until thevery end. His skill at by-passing Parliament (and thus, the will ofthe nobility) played a crucial role in his success at renovatinggovernment.

 

Henry's political acumen was also evident in his handling of foreignaffairs. He played Spain off of France by arranging the marriage ofhis eldest son, Arthur, to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinandand Isabella. Arthur died within months and Henry secured a papaldispensation for Catherine to marry Arthur's brother, the future HenryVIII ; this single event had the widest-ranging effect of all Henry'sactions: Henry VIII's annulment from Catherine was the impetus for theseparation of the Church of England from the body of RomanCatholicism. The marriage of Henry's daughter, Margaret, to James IVof Scotland would also have later repercussions, as the marriageconnected the royal families of both England and Scotland, leading theStuarts to the throne after the extinction of the Tudor dynasty. Henryencouraged trade and commerce by subsidizing ship building andentering into lucrative trade agreements, thereby increasing thewealth of both crown and nation.

 

Henry failed to appeal to the general populace: he maintained adistance between king and subject. He brought the nobility to heel outof necessity to transform the medieval government that he inheritedinto an efficient tool for conducting royal business. Law and tradereplaced feudal obligation as the Middle Ages began evolving into themodern world. Francis Bacon, in his history of Henry VII, describedthe king as such: "He was of a high mind, and loved his own will andhis own way; as one that revered himself, and would reign indeed. Hadhe been a private man he would have been termed proud: But in a wisePrince, it was but keeping of distance; which indeed he did towardsall; not admitting any near or full approach either to his power or tohis secrets. For he was governed by none."

 

Source: http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon40.html

 

 

Notes for Elizabeth Plantagenet:

 

"Elizabeth of York was born at Westminster on 11 Feb 1465, and shedied giving birth to a

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dau. on her birthday in 1503. She was thedaughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. Born into one of thehouses caught in the struggle that would later so eloquently be called'The Wars of the Roses,' one would think that she had a difficultchildhood. In fact, she was living a pleasantly secure life until thedeath of her father in 1483. When she was five years old she was tohave married George Neville, eIdest son of John, Earl ofNorthumberland, later Marquis of Montagu, and Neville was created Dukeof Bedford, but his father switched sides against the King, Bedfordwas deprived of all his titles and Elizabeth's bettrothal wascancelled. In 1475 Edward planned to marry her to Louis, the FrenchDauphin, but Edward soon discovered that Louis had no intention ofkeeping his obligations and therefore the engagement was broken off.Bernard AndrÈ, the blind poet laureate and historian, hints thatEdward offered Elizabeth to Henry of Richmond, but that Henrydeclined, suspecting that the offer was a trap to put him into theKing's power.

 

"However, when Edward IV died, things took a decidedly bad turn.Elizabeth Woodville wanted her young son, now Edward V to go to Londonwith a strong army, but her wishes were not honored. So, when he setout with just the usual attendants, it was easy for his uncle Richard,Duke of Gloucester to intercept the caravan and take the young King tothe palace lodgings in the Tower of London.

 

"Elizabeth Woodville must have distrusted this move by Richard, sinceshe took her remaining son Richard, the Duke of York, and her sixdaughters to Westminster Abbey. However, Elizabeth was convinced tolet Richard join his brother at the Tower (on the premise that theyoung King was lonely) under the protection of Richard. It was at thistime that the young princes (technically a King and a prince)disappeared, and the Lord Protector, brother of the late Edward IVbecame King Richard III.

 

"Elizabeth's mother now made a plan, together with Margaret Beaufort,to marry their two children, Henry and Elizabeth. On Christmas Day,1483, at the cathedral of Rennes in Brittany, where he was in exile,Henry Tudor swore to marry Elizabeth as soon as he had secured thethrone.

 

"Richard III, of course, was determined to stop such a scheme beingput into operation. The Titulus Regius is simply the document in whichRichard laid out his claim to the throne. Briefly, the case is this:that Richard's brother, Edward IV, had made a troth-plight with LadyEleanor Butler, and then, while Lady Eleanor was still alive, hadmarried Elizabeth Woodville, thus making hte children of the marriageillegitimate, thus invalidating their claim to the throne, thus makingRichard the rightful King.

 

"When Richard III's wife died in 1485 he proposed to marry Elizabethhimself. Luckily, his advisers persuaded him to drop this strangenotion.

 

"When Henry of Richmond landed at Milford Haven, Elizabeth was sent tosafe keeping at Sheriff Hutton, near York, deep in the heart ofGloucester country. Henry's victory at Bosworth meant Elizabeth'srelease and her journey to London to meet the man she was to marry.

 

"Henry delayed the wedding for a number of months, possibly because hewished to make it quite cIear that he was King of England in his ownright and not because he was marrying the heiress of Edward IV, butprobably also for simple practical reasons. Parlia ment was impatientof the delay and before Christmas 1485 the Commons urged him to honourhis pledge. So, on 18 Jan 1486, having acquired the necessary papaldispensation, the marriage was solemnized. Thus the two royal houses -York and Lancaster - were finally united. Their marriage symbolicallybrought an end to the Wars of the Roses (although rebellions wouldspring up during Henry's reign) and was responsible for the creationof the Tudor Rose- the joining of the white rose of York and the redrose of Lancaster.

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"Elizabeth is one of the least important, though not the leastattractive, of the Queens of England. Little is known about her. Whatevidence there is suggests that the relations between Henry VII andhis Queen were happy. Of Elizabeth and Henry's seven children, foursurvived childhood: Arthur, Margaret, Henry and Mary.

 

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